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Monday, 28 October 2013

@Healthy Foods- Navy beans (Phaseolus)


The small, white navy bean, also called pea bean or haricot, popular in both dry and green forms, is very popular in Britain and the US, native to Peru. It is now grown and consumed across the world, due to their numerous health benefits.

Nutritional supplements
1. Carbohydrate
2. Protein
3. Dietary fiber
4. Vitamin A
5. Vitamin B1
6. copper
7. Iron
8. Manganese
9. Phosphorus
10. Magnesium
11. Etc.


Health benefits
A. Health Benefits according to studies
1. Colon carcinogenesis
The fraction of cooked navy beans is responsible for its cancer-preventive effects, according to "Dietary cooked navy beans and their fractions attenuate colon carcinogenesis in azoxymethane-induced ob/ob mice" by Bobe G, Barrett KG, Mentor-Marcel RA, Saffiotti U, Young MR, Colburn NH, Albert PS, Bennink MR, Lanza E.(a)

2. Diabetes
Navy beans had found in binding on the ability of the intestine to absorb glucose, according to the study of "Binding of navy bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) lectin to the intestinal cells of the rat and its effect on the absorption of glucose" by Donatucci DA, Liener IE, Gross CJ.(b)

3. Disaccharidase activity
In the investigations of four raw legume diets: field beans (Vicia faba) (RFB), navy beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) (RNB), soybeans (Glycine soja) (RSB) and bitter vetch (VICIA ervilia) (RBV), on disaccharidase activities in chick small intestine found that chicks fed on autoclaved navy beans and soybeans showed a considerably higher activity of these disaccharidases, according to "Effect of raw legume diets on disaccharidase activity in the small intestine of chicks" by Lasheras B, Cenarruzabeitia MN, Fontán J, Lluch M, Larralde J.(c)

4. Blood glucose response
In the determination of the effect of endogenous and added phytic acid as well as Ca on the in vitro rate of starch digestion and in vivo blood glucose response to navy bean flour found that the role of both added and endogenous phytic acid in slowing the in vitro rate of starch digestibility and in vivo glycemic response to legumes and the ability of Ca to modify this effect, according to"Phytic acid and calcium affect the in vitro rate of navy bean starch digestion and blood glucose response in humans" by Thompson LU, Button CL, Jenkins DJ.(d)

5. Etc.

B. Health benefits according to concentration
1. Dietary fiber
Daily intake of right amount of fibers can prevent and treat Diabetes, as Increased consumption of vegetables, whole grains, and soluble and insoluble fiber is associated with improved glucose metabolism in both diabetic and nondiabetic individuals. Improvements in insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis were more evident in participants following a plant-based diet compared with other commonly used diets, according to the study of "Efficacy of high-fiber diets in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus" by Wolfram T, Ismail-Beigi F.(1)

2. Folate
In the investigation of the prevalence and multifactorial etiology of anemia among Indian human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children and its effect on anemia, found that Anemia, particularly iron deficiency anemia and anemia of inflammation, is highly prevalent among children with HIV infection. Micronutrient supplements (iron and, folate) combined with ART(antiretroviral therapy) improved anemia in HIV-infected children, according to "The prevalence and etiology of anemia among HIV-infected children in India" by Shet A, Arumugam K, Rajagopalan N, Dinakar C, Krishnamurthy S, Mehta S, Shet AS.(2)

3. Tryptophan
Tryptophan beside is the precosur of serotonin as it is famous in inducing sleep if it taken in high dose,according to the study of "Improving the quality of infant sleep through the inclusion at supper of cereals enriched with tryptophan, adenosine-5'-phosphate, and uridine-5'-phosphate" by Cubero J, Chanclón B, Sánchez S, Rivero M, Rodríguez AB, Barriga C.(2), it also enhances the neural responses cayused by depression, according to the study of "The effects of tryptophan depletion on neural responses to emotional words in remitted depression" by Roiser JP, Levy J, Fromm SJ, Nugent AC, Talagala SL, Hasler G, Henn FA, Sahakian BJ, Drevets WC.(3)

4. Manganese
It is one of important trace in preventing osteroposis, according to the study of "[Study of estrogen deficiency impact on manganese levels in teeth and mandible of rats after ovariectomy]. [Article in Polish]" by Rahnama M, Błoniarz J, Zareba S, Swiatkowski W.(4)and regulating blood sugar level, according to the study of "[An inadequate intake of manganese may favour insulin resistance in girls]. [Article in Spanish]" by Rodríguez-Rodríguez E, Bermejo LM, López-Sobaler AM, Ortega RM.(4)

5. Protein
Protein in Soybean is not only beneficial to the cardiovascular diseases, according to the study of "Soy protein, isoflavones, and cardiovascular health: an American Heart Association Science Advisory for professionals from the Nutrition Committee" by Sacks FM, Lichtenstein A, Van Horn L, Harris W, Kris-Etherton P, Winston M; American Heart Association Nutrition Committee(5), but also plays an important role in treating diabetes, according to "Effects of soy protein and isoflavones on glycemic control and insulin sensitivity: a 6-mo double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial in postmenopausal Chinese women with prediabetes or untreated early diabetes" by Liu ZM, Chen YM, Ho SC, Ho YP, Woo J.(6)

6. Etc.

C. Other health benefits
1. Irritable bowel syndrome
Since it contain high amount of fiber, it helps to improve the digestive system in expelling the waste through large intestine, reducing the risk of irritable bowel syndrome and constipation, according to the study of "High-fiber diet supplementation in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS): a multicenter, randomized, open trial comparison between wheat bran diet and partially hydrolyzed guar gum (PHGG)" by Parisi GC, Zilli M, Miani MP, Carrara M, Bottona E, Verdianelli G, Battaglia G, Desideri S, Faedo A, Marzolino C, Tonon A, Ermani M, Leandro G., posted in PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12184518, researcher found that significantly more patients in the PHGG group reported a greater subjective improvement than those in the Fiber group.

2. Diabetes
High amount of fiber not only helps to prevent weigh gain, it also improves the pancreas in production of insulin as a result of glucose of navy bean being released slowly into blood stream after consuming, in a sudy of "Efficacy of high-fiber diets in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus" by Wolfram T, Ismail-Beigi F., posted in PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20713332), researchers concluded that Increased consumption of vegetables, whole grains, and soluble and insoluble fiber is associated with improved glucose metabolism in both diabetic and nondiabetic individuals. Improvements in insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis were more evident in participants following a plant-based diet compared with other commonly used diets.

3. Fertility
Since it contains high amount of magnesium and coper, the trace minerals help to relax the blood vessel and improves the blood flow to the cells of the body, including the reproductive organs, thus reducing the risk of sexual impotent, lower sex drive, etc. according to the study of "Correction of subnormal fertility with copper and magnesium supplementation" by Ingraham RH, Kappel LC, Morgan EB, Srikandakumar A., posted in PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3571619)

4. Vitamin B1 or thiamin
Thiamin (vitamin B1) plays an essential role in the synthesis of acetylcholine, which is important for the brain in neurotransmitter thus reducing the risk of age-related impairment such as Alzheimer's disease. In astudy of "Thiamine deficiency induces oxidative stress and exacerbates the plaque pathology in Alzheimer's mouse model" by Karuppagounder SS, Xu H, Shi Q, Chen LH, Pedrini S, Pechman D, Baker H, Beal MF, Gandy SE, Gibson GE., posted in PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18406011), researchers found that TD (Thiamine deficiency)-induced inflammation in areas of plaque formation. Thus, the induction of mild impairment of oxidative metabolism, oxidative stress and inflammation induced by TD alters metabolism of APP and/or Abeta and promotes accumulation of plaques independent of neuron loss or neuritic clusters.

5. Iron
Iron beside is important in forming of the red pigment called hemoglobin in the blood and carrying life-giving oxygen to human blood cells, it also takes an active role in the synthesis of a some essential neurotransmitters like dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin, thus reducing the risk of nervous tension., according to the study of "Early iron deficiency has brain and behavior effects consistent with dopaminergic dysfunction" by Lozoff B., posted in PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21346104), researchers found that Iron deficiency also has other effects, specifically on other neurotransmitters, myelination, dendritogenesis, neurometabolism in hippocampus and striatum, gene and protein profiles, and associated behaviors. The persistence of poorer cognitive, motor, affective, and sensory system functioning highlights the need to prevent iron deficiency in infancy and to find interventions that lessen the long-term effects of this widespread nutrient disorder.

6. Etc.


Side effect
1. Toxicity
Do not eat navy bean in the raw form, it can be toxic
2. Purine
It may cause problem for some people with untreated kidney diseases due to accumulation of excessive amount of uric acid, if it is eaten in a great amount.
3. Etc.
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Sources
(a) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18444172
(b) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3694292
(c) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7192009
(d) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3630965

(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20713332
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22009132
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19539268
(4) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22072339
(5) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16418439
(6) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20335543