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Tuesday, 29 October 2013

Dementia Treatments of Dementia Associated with Parkinson's Disease In Conventional Medicine Perspective

I. Dementia
A. About 5-8% of all people over the age of 65 have some form of dementia, and this number doubles every five years above that age. Dementia is the loss of mental ability that is severe enough to interfere with people's every life and Alzheimer's disease is the most common type of dementia in aging people. American typical diet contains high amount of saturated and trans fat, artificial ingredients with less fruits and vegetable which can lead to dementia and other kind of diseases.

B. Dementia associated with Parkinson's disease
Parkinson disease (PD) is a disabling, progressive condition. It is a cognitive deficits due to the interruption of frontal-subcortical loops that facilitate cognition and that parallel the motor loop. Contrary to common perception, many Non-motor symptoms (NMS) of PD occur early in PD and some may even predate the diagnosis of PD that is based on motor signs. These include olfactory deficit, sleep problems such as rapid eye movement behaviour disorder, constipation and the more recently described male erectile dysfunction.(1).

II. Treatments of Dementia Associated with Parkinson's Disease
Treatments are depending to the degree of functional and cognitive impairment, but according to the suggestion of  the Movement Disorder Society (MDS) Task Force on Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM)
1. Treatments for the non-motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease 
The Movement Disorder Society (MDS) Task Force on Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM) Review of Treatments for Parkinson's Disease (PD) was first published in 2002 and was updated in 2005 to cover clinical trial data up to January 2004 with the focus on motor symptoms of PD, suggested the tricyclic antidepressants nortriptyline and desipramine for the treatment of depression or depressive symptoms and macrogol for the treatment of constipation.... The practice implications for these treatments are possibly useful. Methylphenidate and modafinil for the treatment of fatigue; amantadine for the treatment of pathological gambling; donepezil, galantamine, and memantine for the treatment of dementia; quetiapine for the treatment of psychosis; fludrocortisone and domperidone for the treatment of orthostatic hypotension; sildenafil for the treatment of erectile dysfunction, ipratropium bromide spray for the treatment of sialorrhea; levodopa/carbidopa controlled release (CR), pergolide, eszopiclone, melatonin 3 to 5 mg and melatonin 50 mg for the treatment of insomnia and modafinil for the treatment of excessive daytime sleepiness. There were no RCTs that met inclusion criteria for the treatment of anxiety disorders, apathy, medication-related impulse control disorders and related behaviors other than pathological gambling, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD), sweating, or urinary dysfunction. Therefore, there is insufficient evidence for the treatment of these indications(2).  Other researchers suggested that Sildenafil citrate (50 mg) may be considered to treat erectile dysfunction in patients with Parkinson disease (PD) (Level C). Macrogol (polyethylene glycol) may be considered to treat constipation in patients with PD (Level C). The use of levodopa/carbidopa probably decreases the frequency of spontaneous nighttime leg movements, and should be considered to treat periodic limb movements of sleep in patients with PD (Level B). There is insufficient evidence to support or refute specific treatments for urinary incontinence, orthostatic hypotension, and anxiety (Level U). Future research should include concerted and interdisciplinary efforts toward finding treatments for nonmotor symptoms of PD(3).

2. Treatments for the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease
The Movement Disorder Society (MDS) Task Force on Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM) Review of Treatments for Parkinson's Disease (PD) was first published in 2002 and was updated in 2005 to cover clinical trial data up to January 2004 with the focus on motor symptoms of PD. Piribedil, pramipexole, pramipexole extended release, ropinirole, rotigotine, cabergoline, and pergolide were all efficacious as symptomatic monotherapy; ropinirole prolonged release was likely efficacious. All were efficacious as a symptomatic adjunct except pramipexole extended release, for which there is insufficient evidence. For prevention/delay of motor fluctuations, pramipexole and cabergoline were efficacious, and for prevention/delay of dyskinesia, pramipexole, ropinirole, ropinirole prolonged release, and cabergoline were all efficacious, whereas pergolide was likely efficacious. Duodenal infusion of levodopa was likely efficacious in the treatment of motor complications, but the practice implication is investigational. Entacapone was nonefficacious as a symptomatic adjunct to levodopa in nonfluctuating patients and nonefficacious in the prevention/delay of motor complications. Rasagiline conclusions were revised to efficacious as a symptomatic adjunct, and as treatment for motor fluctuations. Clozapine was efficacious in dyskinesia, but because of safety issues, the practice implication is possibly useful. Bilateral subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation, bilateral globus pallidus stimulation, and unilateral pallidotomy were updated to efficacious for motor complications. Physical therapy was revised to likely efficacious as symptomatic adjunct therapy(4)

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Sources
(1) http://www.helpguide.org/elder/parkinsons_disease.htm
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22021174
(3) http://www.neurology.org/content/74/11/924.full
(4) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22021173