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Tuesday, 29 October 2013

@Dementia - Free Radical Causes of Dementia

Dementia
Human aging is a biological process, no one can stop, but delay it. It is possible that one person looks younger than his or her biological if engages in healthy living life style and eating healthily by increasing the intake of good healthy food such as whole grain, fruits, vegetables, beans and legumes, etc. and reducing the consumption of harmful foods, such as saturated fat, trans fat, artificial ingredients, etc.. About 5-8% of all people over the age of 65 have some form of dementia, and this number doubles every five years above that age. Dementia is the loss of mental ability that is severe enough to interfere with people's every life and Alzheimer's disease is the most common type of dementia in aging people

Causes of Dementia
B. Free radical causes of dementia
B.1. Alzheimer’s disease
1. Free radical and Alzheimer’s disease
Free radicals causes Alzheimer’s disease is well defined in many researches. In a study of protein oxidation in the brain in Alzheimer's disease by using immunohistochemistry and two-dimensional fingerprinting of oxidatively modified proteins (two-dimensional Oxyblot) together to investigate protein carbonyl formation in the Alzheimer's disease brain, researchers found that oxidative stress-induced injury may involve the selective modification of different intracellular proteins may lead to the neurofibrillary degeneration of neurons in the brain. (source)

2.  Antioxidants and Alzheimer’s disease
a. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)
Researchers found that DHA increases phosphatidylserine, a naturally occurring component found in every cell membrane of the body and improves the memory of animals with Alzheimer's disease by suppressing oxidative damage in the brain.

b. Vitamin E
In a study, researcher found that vitamin E, and drugs that reduce generalized inflammation, may slow the decline of mental and physical abilities in people with Alzheimer's disease (AD) over the long term. Also vitamin E inhibits cells damage and cells death caused by beta-amyloid, which is toxic to brain cells.

c. PhosphatidylserineIn one double-blind, placebo-controlled study, patients who had Alzheimer’s disease who took 300 milligrams per day (mg/day) of phosphatidylserine scored significantly better on standardized memory tests at the end of the 12-week trial period than patients who received placebo.

d. Antioxidants
Antioxidant are found at much lower levels for patients with Alzheimer’s disease, such as serum of vitamin A, C, E, zinc and transfferin.

e. Muscarinic cholinergic receptors
researchers found that Alzheimer’s disease patients exhibit the significant loss of muscarinic cholinergic receptors neurons that cause the reduced volume of neural transmission leading to the loss of memory.


f. Etc.

B.2. Parkinson's disease
1. Free radicals and Parkinson's disease

Researcher found that patients with Parkinson's disease have low levels of polyunsaturated fat in the substania nigra than other part of the brain, but higher levels of lipid peroxidation as indication of higher levels of malonaldehyde. Also patients with the disease found to contain waste pigments of lipofusion and other polymers in the neurons where dopamine is most active.

2. Antioxidants and Parkinson's disease
Antioxidants play an vital role for patients with Parkinson's disease, as researchers found the prohression of the disease accompany with reduction of antioxidants in the affected parts of the brain.
a. Superoxide dismutase
Researcher found that the progression of the disease may be associated with the decrease levels of superoxide dismutase, a antioxidant enzyme.

b. NADH ubiquinone reductase
Researcher found that the levels of NADH ubiquinone reductase is decreased in the substania nigra due to its inhibitors, leading to apoptosis, but can be retreated with antioxidants Nacetylcysteine and alpha lipoic acid.

c. Uric acid
Researchers at the University of Hawaii recently reported that people with a high blood level of the natural antioxidant uric acid have a lower risk of developing Parkinson's disease than do people with lower levels, but high levels of uric acid increases the risk of kidney diseases and gout.

d. Vitamin C
Vitamin C is one of powerful and effective antioxidant in scavenging hydroxyl radicals as it enters the cerebrospinal fluid thus protecting against Parkinson's disease or slowing down the progression of the disease.

e. Glutathione
Researcher found that glutathoine is one of the antioxidant which can help to deactivate the harmful product HNE of lipid peroxidation.


f. Etc.

B.3. Multiple Sclerosis
1. Free radicals and Multiple Sclerosis
a. The DeVine theory suggested that free radical activity is a contributory factors in MS, theory suggestive that immune system and free radical cooperation cause the generation of in the myelin itself that deteriorates the myelin shealts.

b. Cooper theory went on step further by suggested that free radicals actually initiate MS, by damaging the myelin, leading to initiating and promoting of activity of T-cells.

c. Etc.

4. Antioxidants and Multiple sclerosis
Antioxidants can help protect the neural tissue from damage that reduce the risk of inflammation result in lessening the risk of oxidative stress.
a. TNFalpha
An imflammatory cytokine has been associated with MS is inhibited by antioxidants of green tea, and others such as curcumin, quercetin, etc.

b. Melatonin
Melatonin functions as an antioxidant and has the ability to protect neurons from free radicals cause of lipid peroxidation.

c Selenium
Some studied found that the levels of selenium in the blood of people with MS was lower than in that of people without MS.

d. Niacin
Niacin acts as antioxidant is a key to the successful treatment of multiple sclerosis, researchers at Harvard Medical School found that Niacin profoundly prevents the degeneration of demyelinated axons and improves the behavioral deficits.

e. Vitamin D
A study published in a recent issue of the journal Neurology, the group receiving the vitamin D demonstrated a remarkable 41 percent reduction in new MS events with no meaningful side effects.


f. Etc.

B.4. Lou Gehrig's disease
1. Free radicals and Lou Gehrig's disease
Researchers found that glutamate in the synapses enhances the production of free radicals compounds only in motor nerve cells but spares other nerve cells such as cells control senses and other body functions, causing to more production of free radicals and leading to disrupting of the surrounding support cells, called astrocytes, which regulate glutamate levels.

2. Antioxidants and Lou Gehrig's disease
a. Vitamin B12 (methylcobalamin)
Researcher found that high doses of vitamin B12 (25 mg) as an antioxidant have been shown to improve or slow muscle wasting in the later stages of patients with ALS disease.

b. Vitamin E
Vitamin E beside helps to protect cell membranes from lipid peroxidation damage that reduce the risk of breakdown of the cell membrane, causing ALS.

c. Superoxide dismutase enzyme
Research found that mutations in the superoxide dismutase enzyme can increase the risk ALS in catalyzing the dismutation of superoxide into oxygen and hydrogen peroxide.

d. Cerebral cortex
Researcher found that oxidative protein damage and DNA alternation were found in elevating levels in the cerebral cortex of those with sporadic ALS.

e. Amino acids
study found that diet high in amino acids as antioxidants have shown some promising effect in treating ALS.

f. Etc.


B.5. Etc.

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