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Tuesday, 29 October 2013

Dementia - Diet causes of Dementia

Dementia
About 5-8% of all people over the age of 65 have some form of dementia, and this number doubles every five years above that age. Dementia is the loss of mental ability that is severe enough to interfere with people's every life and Alzheimer's disease is the most common type of dementia in aging people. American typical diet contains high amount of saturated and trans fat, artificial ingredients with less fruits and vegetable which can lead to dementia and other kind of diseases

I. Causes of Dementia
D. Diet Causes of Dementia
Scientist at Kuakini Medical Center; Veterans Affairs Pacific Islands Healthcare System, in a study of to determine whether adhering to a healthy lifestyle in midlife may reduce the risk of dementia, indicated that Men at low risk od dementia, were defined as those with the following midlife characteristics: nonsmoking, body mass index (BMI) less than 25.0 kg/m(2) , physically active, and having a healthy diet (based on alcohol, dairy, meat, fish, fruits, vegetables, cereals, and ratio of monounsaturated to saturated fat).(1)
1. Saturated fat and Trans fat
Saturated fat are important for energy, hormone production, cellular membranes, especially for important signaling and stabilization processes in the body, but over consumption of saturated fat can cause cholesterol buildup in the arteries of which can lead to heart diseases, stroke, diabetes, etc. Several studies conducted in animal models and in humans provided evidence for a role of DHA in preventing brain degeneration. Significantly lower levels of PLGN were observed in patients with severe dementia. Moreover, a decreased activity of carnitine acetyltransferase, an enzyme present in peroxisome (but also detected in mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, and nucleus), was reported in AD patients(2)
Where  peroxisome are organelles found in virtually all eukaryotic cells.They are involved in the catabolism of very long chain fatty acids, branched chain fatty acids, D-amino acids, polyamines, and biosynthesis of plasmalogens, etherphospholipids critical for the normal function of mammalian brains and lungs(3). Other study suggested that suggests that a high saturated fat and cholesterol intake increases the risk of dementia, whereas fish consumption may decrease this risk.(4)
In the investigation of the effects of trans fat in dementia show that trans fatty acids compared to cis fatty acids increase amyloidogenic and decrease nonamyloidogenic processing of APP, resulting in an increased production of amyloid beta (Aβ) peptides, main components of senile plaques, which are a characteristic neuropathological hallmark for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Moreover, our results show that oligomerization and aggregation of Aβ are increased by trans fatty acids. The mechanisms identified by this in vitro study suggest that the intake of trans fatty acids potentially increases the AD risk or causes an earlier onset of the disease.(5)

2. Artificial sweetener
Artificial sweetener can cause obesity, there are several reports that the use of artificial sweeteners leads to an increased consumption of fat. The weak ability of fat to satisfy hunger makes it easy to overeat fatty foods; in contrast, carbohydrates promote a feeling of 'fullness'. Various short-term studies have found that carbohydrate consumed as a liquid, rather than a solid, is more likely to result in weight gain.(6) Researchers at the showed that Central obesity in midlife increases risk of dementia independent of diabetes and cardiovascular comorbidities. Fifty percent of adults have central obesity; therefore, mechanisms linking central obesity to dementia need to be unveiled.(7).

3. Fast Foods
Fast foods, unwholesome foods, containing high amounts of artificial ingredients, are products processed and pre-prepared so that they can be cooked fast and handed over to the customer in minutes. On Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, patients had anxiety, tension, depression, difficulty in concentration, and memory. On Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, these patients had anxiety, depression, and hypochondriasis. On Brief Psychiatry Rating Scale, psychological factors affected include: anxiety, depression, somatic concern and tension, etc. The data reflects that unwholesome diet and disturbed mental health plays an important role in etiopathogenesis of senile dementia (8).

4. Artificial ingredients
In a article HOW DOES CONCUSSION, MSG, AND NEURODEGENERATIVE DISEASE ALL meet, the writer stated that Athletes, soldiers, and high school students are simultaneously ingesting huge amounts of MSG and aspartate in a standard American diet....MSG and aspartame sensitize injured human nerves to the effects of acute concussion when they occur. Even though, there are no mention of the writer about of dementia but the words of neurodegenerative disease was indicated.(9)

5. Alcohol
While moderate alcohol drinking are associated with a reduced risk of unspecified incident dementia and AD, while for VaD, cognitive decline, and predementia syndromes(10), excessive consumption of alcohol not only cause liver damage but also increases the risk of euro-degeneration, causing dementia. Studies published from 1971 to 2011 related to alcohol and cognition in the elderly were reviewed using a PubMed search. Alcohol may have both a neurotoxic and neuroprotective effect. Longitudinal and brain imaging studies in the elderly show that excessive alcohol consumption may increase the risk of cognitive dysfunction and dementia, but low to moderate alcohol intake may protect against cognitive decline and dementia and provide cardiovascular benefits(11)

6. Low intake of fruits and Vegetables
a. Nutrition plays a role in the ageing process of the brain and suboptimal nutrient intake might precede clinical cognitive impairment. In the study of 285 community-dwellers aged 60 or olde, conducted by The Chinese University of Hong Kong, showed that Older people with questionable dementia have lower intakes of vegetables, fruits and fluid than those who were cognitively normal. This may pose additional health risks, and increase their chance of progressing into dementia.(12)

7. Meat
The typical American diet contains high amounts of red meat with amount of saturated fat of that can increase the risk of cholesterol build up in the blood vessels and capillaries that can lead to heart diseases and stroke. Researchers at Osaka University, Graduate School of Medicine suggested that Although high or low (no) meat consumption was associated with elevated or reduced mortality from cardiovascular disease, Moderate meat consumption, up to ∼100 g/day, was not associated with increased mortality from ischemic heart disease, stroke or total cardiovascular disease among either gender. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition advance online publication.(13)

8. Etc.

Finally, I would like to summarize this article with the research from University of Bar,  How diet effect the cognitive function and how they are associated with dementia
*Elevated saturated fatty acids could have negative effects on age-related cognitive decline and mild cognitive impairment (MCI).
*Furthermore, at present, epidemiological evidence suggests a possible association between fish consumption, monounsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA; in particular, n-3 PUFA) and a reduced risk of cognitive decline and dementia.
*Poorer cognitive function and an increased risk of vascular dementia (VaD) were found to be associated with a lower consumption of milk or dairy products.
*However, the consumption of whole-fat dairy products may be associated with cognitive decline in the elderly.
*Light-to-moderate alcohol use may be associated with a reduced risk of incident dementia and AD, while for VaD, cognitive decline and predementia syndromes, the current evidence is only suggestive of a protective effect.
*The limited epidemiological evidence available on fruit and vegetable consumption and cognition generally supports a protective role of these macronutrients against cognitive decline, dementia and AD. *Only recently, higher adherence to a Mediterranean-type diet was associated with decreased cognitive decline, although the Mediterranean diet (MeDi) combines several foods, micro- and macro-nutrients already separately proposed as potential protective factors against dementia and predementia syndromes.(14)

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Sources
(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22211390
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22433776
(3) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peroxisome
(4) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9392577
(5) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22209004
(6) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19079895
(7) http://www.neurology.org/content/71/14/1057.abstract
(8) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22408297
(9) http://jackkruse.com/where-concussions-diet-and-neurodegeneration-meet/
(10) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19494429
(11) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22396679
(12) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20082053
(13) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22333876
(14) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21539488