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Sunday, 27 October 2013

@Healthy Foods - Black beans (Phaseolus)


Black bean
Black bean is Small roughly ovoid legumes with glossy black shells, genus Phaseolus, belongs to the family Fabaceae and can bought in most grocery stores all around the year in dried and canned forms. It is believed that black bean was first domesticated growth in South America.

Nutritional supplements
1. Carbohydrate
2. Dietary fiber
3. Protein
4. Fat
5. Vitamin A
6. Vitamin B
7. Folate
8. Vitamin C
9. Calcium
10. Magnesium
11. Manganese
12. Phosphorus
13. Molybdenum
14. Iron
10. Etc.


Health benefits
A. Health benefits according to studies
1. Antioxidant effect
In the evaluation of the indigestible fraction (IF)of the cooked seeds of three pulses (black bean, chickpea and lentil) and their antioxidant effect found that Condensed tannins were retained to some extent in the IF that exhibited significant antioxidant capacity. The total IF of the three pulses produced short chain fatty acids (SCFA) after 24 h of in vitro fermentation by human colonic microflora. IF from black bean and lentil were best substrates for the fermentative production of butyric acid, according to "In vitro fermentability and antioxidant capacity of the indigestible fraction of cooked black beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), lentils (Lens culinaris L.) and chickpeas (Cicer arietinum L.)" by Hernández-Salazar M, Osorio-Diaz P, Loarca-Piña G, Reynoso-Camacho R, Tovar J, Bello-Pérez LA.(a)

2. Gastric cancer
In the investigation of polyphenolic compounds and antioxidant activities of black soybean
found that indicated that black soybean extract could be used as an apoptosis inducer in AGS cells and a natural chemopreventive agent in the treatment of human gastric cancer, according to "Effect of black soybean extract on the suppression of the proliferation of human AGS gastric cancer cells via the induction of apoptosis" by Zou Y, Chang SK.(b)

3. Low-density lipoprotein
in the evaluation of fermentation on the contents of total phenolics and amino nitrogen pf balck bean and their lowering cholesterol effect found that the A. awamori-fermented black soybean prepared at 30 °C for 3 days exhibited the highest inhibitory effect on LDL oxidation. The bioactive principles related to the inhibitory effect on LDL oxidation in black soybeans, regardless of fermentation, could be most efficiently extracted with water rather than 80% methanol or 80% ethanol, according to "Fermentation with Aspergillus awamori enhanced contents of amino nitrogen and total phenolics as well as the low-density lipoprotein oxidation inhibitory activity of black soybeans" by Chen YF, Lee SL, Chou CC.(c)

4. Prostatic hyperplasia
In the study of Anthocyanin, a natural plant pigment and potent antioxidant from black soybean found that apoptotic body counts were significantly higher in groups receiving anthocyanin than in the BPH-induced group (p < 0.05). These results suggest that anthocyanin may be effective in decreasing the volume and suppressing the proliferation of the prostate. Further studies are needed to better understand the mechanisms and actions of anthocyanin, and these studies may lead to the clinical application of anthocyanin in treating BPH, according to "Anthocyanin extracted from black soybean reduces prostate weight and promotes apoptosis in the prostatic hyperplasia-induced rat model" by Jang H, Ha US, Kim SJ, Yoon BI, Han DS, Yuk SM, Kim SW.(d)

5. Diabetes
In the demonstration of the effect of black soy peptide supplementation on glucose control in subjects with prediabetes, found that black soy peptide supplementation may be beneficial for controlling fasting blood glucose levels and 2-hour PG levels, according to "Black soy peptide supplementation improves glucose control in subjects with prediabetes and newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus" by Kwak JH, Lee JH, Ahn CW, Park SH, Shim ST, Song YD, Han EN, Lee KH, Chae JS.(e)

6. Etc.
B. Health Benefits according to the concentration
1. Molybdenum
Molybdenum cofactor is vital for human enzymes, including xanthine oxidase, sulfite oxidase, and aldehyde oxidase, Deficiency may cause
a. Prenatal brain disruption, according to the study of "Prenatal brain disruption in molybdenum cofactor deficiency" by Carmi-Nawi N, Malinger G, Mandel H, Ichida K, Lerman-Sagie T, Lev D.(1)

b. Uniparental isodisomy with microcephaly and developmental delay, according to the study of "Maternal uniparental isodisomy is responsible for serious molybdenum cofactor deficiency" by Gümüş H, Ghesquiere S, Per H, Kondolot M, Ichida K, Poyrazoğlu G, Kumandaş S, Engelen J, Dundar M, Cağlayan AO.(2)

2. Folate
In the investigation of the prevalence and multifactorial etiology of anemia among Indian human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children and its effect on anemia, found that Anemia, particularly iron deficiency anemia and anemia of inflammation, is highly prevalent among children with HIV infection. Micronutrient supplements (iron and, folate) combined with ART(antiretroviral therapy) improved anemia in HIV-infected children, according to "The prevalence and etiology of anemia among HIV-infected children in India" by Shet A, Arumugam K, Rajagopalan N, Dinakar C, Krishnamurthy S, Mehta S, Shet AS.(2)

3. Dietary Fibers
Daily intake of right amount of fibers can prvent and treata. Diabetes, as Increased consumption of vegetables, whole grains, and soluble and insoluble fiber is associated with improved glucose metabolism in both diabetic and nondiabetic individuals. Improvements in insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis were more evident in participants following a plant-based diet compared with other commonly used diets, according to the study of "Efficacy of high-fiber diets in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus" by Wolfram T, Ismail-Beigi F.(3)

4. Tryptophan
Tryptophan is one of the 10 essential amino acids which the body uses to synthesize the proteins for brain cells need, thus enhancing the nerve cells in information transmitting between themselves and cells in the parts of the body that reduces the risk of anxiety and depression, according to the study of "The effects of tryptophan depletion on neural responses to emotional words in remitted depression" by Roiser JP, Levy J, Fromm SJ, Nugent AC, Talagala SL, Hasler G, Henn FA, Sahakian BJ, Drevets WC.(5)

5. Etc.
C. Other health benefits
1. Cholesterol
Black Bean contains a high amount of dietary fiber which helps to bind the bad cholesterol (LDL) in the digestive track and expelling it through annulus as stool, thus reducing the risk of bad cholesterol in the blood stream cause of hardening of the arterial walls, leading to heart diseases, according to the study of "Effects of soluble dietary fiber on low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and coronary heart disease risk" by Bazzano LA., posted in PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18937894),

2. Insulin sensitive
Dietary fiber also helps to release the blood sugar into blood stream slowly, making them a wise choice for people with diabetes, insulin resistance or hypoglycemia, according to the study of "Effect of dietary fiber on complications of gastric surgery: prevention of postprandial hypoglycemia by pectin" by Jenkins DJ, Gassull MA, Leeds AR, Metz G, Dilawari JB, Slavin B, Blendis LM., posted in PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/873118)

3. Nervous system
Protein is essential for the brain in transmitting information between themselves and cells in the other parts of the body, thus reducing the blood sugar levels from rising too rapidly after a meal, reducing the risk of nervous symptoms cause of anxiety, stress and depression, etc., according to the study of "The planar polarity protein Scribble1 is essential for neuronal plasticity and brain function" by Moreau MM, Piguel N, Papouin T, Koehl M, Durand CM, Rubio ME, Loll F, Richard EM, Mazzocco C, Racca C, Oliet SH, Abrous DN, Montcouquiol M, Sans N, posted in PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20660256)

4. Antioxidant
Black bean contains flavoinoid, the powerful antioxidant (it contains more antioxidant than any bean in the same family with difference skin colors). It not only enhances the immune system in regulating cells in DNA replication and division, but also improves the immune system in fighting against the forming of free radical and protects our body from infection and inflammation. In a study of "Evaluation of Crocus sativus L. stigma phenolic and flavonoid compounds and its antioxidant activity" by Karimi E, Oskoueian E, Hendra R, Jaafar HZ., posted in Pubmed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20877220), researchers found that In summary, saffron stigmas showed antioxidant activity and methanol appeared to be the best solvent to extract the active components, among which the presence of gallic acid and pyrogallol might contribute towards the stigma's antioxidant properties.

5. Bone density
Since black bean contains magnesium, it not only helps to enhance the hormones that aids in calcium metabolism thus reducing the risk of osteoporosis. In a study of "Magnesium, zinc, copper, manganese, and selenium levels in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Can magnesium play a key role in osteoporosis?" by Odabasi E, Turan M, Aydin A, Akay C, Kutlu M., posted in PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18695768), researchers concluded that Mg levels in red blood cells are significantly lower in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. It is concluded that Mg transport mechanism(s) into the cell could be affected in patients with osteoporosis.

6. Dermal papillae skin
Since it contains a measure amount of vitamin C, it not only helps to improve the Dermal papillae skin due to aging. In a study of "Topically applied vitamin C increases the density of dermal papillae in aged human skin" by Sauermann K, Jaspers S, Koop U, Wenck H., posted in PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15456516), researchers found that Vitamin C has the potential to enhance the density of dermal papillae, perhaps through the mechanism of angiogenesis. Topical vitamin C may have therapeutical effects for partial corrections of the regressive structural changes associated with the aging process.

7. Etc.

Side effect
1. Purines
Black beans contain purines, excessive intake of these substances can cause the accumulation of uric acid, leading to"gout" and kidney stones.
2. Etc.

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Sources
(a) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20549791
(b) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21462927
(c) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21370926
(d) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21121678
(e) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21091245

(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21285035
(2) http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1469-8749.2010.03724.x/pdf
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22009132
(4) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20713332
(5) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19539268