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Saturday, 18 February 2017

The holistic Prevention, Management and Treatment of Dementia Induced by Toxin - TCM Herbal Milk thistle(Shui Fei Zi)

Kyle J. Norton (Scholar) 
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.


                                 Dementia

Dementia is defined as neuro degeneration syndrome among elder, affecting memory, thinking, orientation, comprehension, calculation, learning capacity, language, and judgement over 47 millions
of worldwide population, mostly in the West. The evaluation of the syndrome by holistic medicine has been lacking, especially through conventional medicine research and studies.


   TCM Treatment of Dementia Induced by Toxin - Shui Fei Zi or Milk thistle (Silybum marianum)

Based on Chinese ancient medical records, causes of dementia are the results of (*)
B.5. Chinese Herbal medicine for toxins elimination
1. Shui Fei Zi or Milk thistle (Silybum marianum)
Shui fei zi, the bitter and cold herb, is also known as milk thistle, native to Western Europe and northern Africa, used in traditional Chinese medicine to improve liver function(1193)(1194)(1210), promote the flow of breast milk(1207), bile secretion(1200), anti depression(1201) and anti tumors(1196)(1197)(1198), inhibit allergic effects(1195)(1199), treat hepatitis C(1202)(1203), cirrhosis(1205) and liver fibrosis(1206), by enhancing function of liver and gallbladder channels(1204)

Phytochemicals
1. Flavonoid
2. Fumaric acid
3. Silymarin
4. Isosilybin,
5. Dehydrosilybin,
6. Silydianin
7. Silychristin
8. Cinnamic acid
9. Myristic acid
10. Palmitelaidic acid
10. Arachidic acid
11. Etc.

Shui Fei Zi or Milk thistle used in the treatment and prevention ofdementia(1218) in traditional Chinese medicine, may be due to its effectiveness of phytochemicals Silymarin and Silibinin in ameliorated amyloid pathology(1216) and oxidative stress(1216)(1217) through attenuated levels of lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde) and antioxidant (glutathione) in the hippocampus(1217).

1.1. In Alzheimer's disease
Alzheimer disease (AD). a neurodegenerative disorders is the most prevalent diseases in the United States, in aging population(1219). Silymarin, a phytochemical found abundantly in milk thistle, in age related disorders like neurodegenerative diseases improved locomotion rate, higher response to stimuli and tolerance to stress, in C.elegans Alzheimer's Model, through delayed paralysis via enhanced resistance to oxidative stress(1220). In rat induced Alzheimer's disease model, the phytochemical also inhibited amyloid formation(1222) and suppressed amyloid protein precursor (APP) expression(1222)and reduced neurotoxicity in PC12 cells(1222) in improvement memory(1223) and learning function(1221).

1.2. In Parkinson disease
In a mouse model of Parkinson's disease, causes of mitochondrial dysfunction and selective cells death of dopaminergic neurons, silibinin, derivative of silymarin, protected mitochondria through attenuated motor deficit and dopaminergic neuronal loss(1224) and anti oxidative and anti inflammatory pathways(1225).

1.3. In neuroprotective effects
In focal cerebral ischemia, silymarin (SM), a mixture of flavonolignans extracted from the milk thistle exerted it neuroprotective effects, in upregulating the antioxidant status and lowering the apoptotic response in slowing down the progression of neurodegeneration(1226) and preventing inflammation-related neurodegenerative disease(1227) and ROS causs of oxidative damage to macromolecules in the brain(1230).

1.4. In cognitive impairment
In cognitive deficit mice model, silibinin exhibited its anti cognitive impairment effects through amelioration of decreases in dopamine and serotonin levels in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus, (1228). In amyloid beta peptide-induced memory impairment, the chemicals also improved cognitive memory deficits through attenuated the Abeta(25-35)- accumulation of malondialdehyde and depletion of glutathione in the hippocampus(1229).

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References
(1193) Milk thistle (Silybum marianum) for the therapy of liver disease by Flora K1, Hahn M, Rosen H, Benner K.(PubMed)
(1194) Milk thistle in liver diseases: past, present, future by Abenavoli L1, Capasso R, Milic N, Capasso F.(PubMed)
(1195) Silymarin inhibits cell cycle progression and mTOR activity in activated human T cells: therapeutic implications for autoimmune diseases. by Gharagozloo M1, Javid EN, Rezaei A, Mousavizadeh K.(PubMed)
(1196) Silibinin reverses drug resistance in human small-cell lung carcinoma cells by Sadava D1, Kane SE.(PubMed)
(1197) Silibinin inhibits accumulation of myeloid-derived suppressor cells and tumor growth of murine breast cancer. by Forghani P1, Khorramizadeh MR, Waller EK.(PubMed)
(1198) Silymarin induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells. by Fan L1, Ma Y1, Liu Y1, Zheng D2, Huang G3.(PubMed)
(1199) Immunosuppressive effect of silymarin on mitogen-activated protein kinase signalling pathway: the impact on T cell proliferation and cytokine production by Gharagozloo M1, Jafari S, Esmaeil N, Javid EN, Bagherpour B, Rezaei A.(PubMed)
(1200) Analysis of silibinin in rat plasma and bile for hepatobiliary excretion and oral bioavailability application by Wu JW1, Lin LC, Hung SC, Chi CW, Tsai TH.(PubMed)
(1201) Possible involvement of nitric oxide in antidepressant-like effect of silymarin in male mice. by Khoshnoodi M1, Fakhraei N, Dehpour AR.(PubMed)
(1202) Effects and tolerance of silymarin (milk thistle) in chronic hepatitis C virus infection patients: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials by Yang Z1, Zhuang L2, Lu Y1, Xu Q1, Chen X1.(PubMed)
(1203) Effect of silymarin (milk thistle) on liver disease in patients with chronic hepatitis C unsuccessfully treated with interferon therapy: a randomized controlled trial by Fried MW1, Navarro VJ, Afdhal N, Belle SH, Wahed AS, Hawke RL, Doo E, Meyers CM, Reddy KR; Silymarin in NASH and C Hepatitis (SyNCH) Study Group.(PubMed)
(1204) Shui fei ji(Complementary and Alternative Healing University)
(1205) The clinical utility of milk thistle (Silybum marianum) in cirrhosis of the liver by Boerth J1, Strong KM.(PubMed)
(1206) Immunosuppressive effect of silymarin on mitogen-activated protein kinase signalling pathway: the impact on T cell proliferation and cytokine production by Gharagozloo M1, Jafari S, Esmaeil N, Javid EN, Bagherpour B, Rezaei A.(PubMed)
(1207) Systematic review of the efficacy of herbal galactogogues by Mortel M1, Mehta SD.(PubMed)
(1208) Effect of reinforcing kidney-essence, removing phlegm, and promoting mental therapy on treating Alzheimer'sdisease. by Liu P1, Kong M, Liu S, Chen G, Wang P.(PubMed)
(1209) Effects of Chinese medicine for tonifying the kidney and resolving phlegm and blood stasis in treating patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment: a randomized, double-blind and parallel-controlled trial by Miao YC1, Tian JZ, Shi J, Mao M.(PubMed)
(1210) Effects of acupuncture on Chinese medicine syndromes of vascular dementia. by Shi GX1, Liu CZ, Guan W, Wang ZK, Wang L, Xiao C, Li ZG, Li QQ, Wang LP.(PubMed)
(1211) Accuracy of brain amyloid detection in clinical practice using cerebrospinal fluid β-amyloid 42: a cross-validation study against amyloid positron emission tomography by Palmqvist S1, Zetterberg H2, Blennow K2, Vestberg S3, Andreasson U2, Brooks DJ4, Owenius R5, Hägerström D6, Wollmer P7, Minthon L8, Hansson O8.(PubMed)
(1212) Apolipoprotein E genotype and the diagnostic accuracy of cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers for Alzheimer disease by Lautner R1, Palmqvist S2, Mattsson N3, Andreasson U1, Wallin A1, Pålsson E1, Jakobsson J1, Herukka SK4, Owenius R5, Olsson B1, Hampel H6, Rujescu D7,Ewers M8, Landén M9, Minthon L2, Blennow K1, Zetterberg H10, Hansson O2; Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative.(PubMed)
(1213) Immunity factors for two related tRNAGln targeting killer toxins distinguish cognate and non-cognate toxic subunits by Klassen R1, Kast A, Wünsche G, Paluszynski JP, Wemhoff S, Meinhardt, F. (PubMed)
(1214) Non structural protein of avian influenza A (H11N1) virus is a weaker suppressor of immune responses but capable of inducing apoptosis in host cells. by Mukherjee S1, Majumdar S, Vipat VC, Mishra AC, Chakrabarti AK.(PubMed)
(1215) The anorexia of aging in humans by Hays NP1, Roberts SB.(PubMed)
(1216) Silibinin: a novel inhibitor of Aβ aggregation by Yin F1, Liu J, Ji X, Wang Y, Zidichouski J, Zhang J.(PubMed)
(1217) Silibinin prevents amyloid beta peptide-induced memory impairment and oxidative stress in mice. by Lu P1, Mamiya T, Lu LL, Mouri A, Zou L, Nagai T, Hiramatsu M, Ikejima T, Nabeshima T.(PubMed)
(1218) Silymarin attenuated the amyloid β plaque burden and improved behavioral abnormalities in an Alzheimer'sdisease mouse model by Murata N1, Murakami K, Ozawa Y, Kinoshita N, Irie K, Shirasawa T, Shimizu T.(PubMed)
(1219) Is lithium a neuroprotective agent? by Vo TM1, Perry P, Ellerby M, Bohnert K.(PubMed)
(1220) Silymarin extends lifespan and reduces proteotoxicity in C. elegans Alzheimer's model by Kumar J, Park KC, Awasthi A, Prasad B1.(PubMed)
(1221) Silymarin effect on amyloid-β plaque accumulation and gene expression of APP in an Alzheimer's disease rat model by Yaghmaei P1, Azarfar K, Dezfulian M, Ebrahim-Habibi A.(PubMed)
(1222) Silymarin attenuated the amyloid β plaque burden and improved behavioral abnormalities in an Alzheimer'sdisease mouse model by Murata N1, Murakami K, Ozawa Y, Kinoshita N, Irie K, Shirasawa T, Shimizu T.(PubMed)
(1223) Silibinin attenuates amyloid beta(25-35) peptide-induced memory impairments: implication of inducible nitric-oxide synthase and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in mice by Lu P1, Mamiya T, Lu LL, Mouri A, Niwa M, Hiramatsu M, Zou LB, Nagai T, Ikejima T, Nabeshima T.(PubMed)
(1224) Silibinin prevents dopaminergic neuronal loss in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease via mitochondrial stabilization by Lee Y1, Park HR, Chun HJ, Lee J.(PubMed)
(1225) Silibinin attenuates MPP⁺-induced neurotoxicity in the substantia nigra in vivo by Jung UJ1, Jeon MT, Choi MS, Kim SR.(PubMed)
(1226) Orally administrated cinnamon extract reduces β-amyloid oligomerization and corrects cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's disease animal models by Frydman-Marom A1, Levin A, Farfara D, Benromano T, Scherzer-Attali R, Peled S, Vassar R, Segal D, Gazit E, Frenkel D, Ovadia M.(PubMed)
(1227) Preventive effect of silymarin in cerebral ischemia-reperfusion-induced brain injury in rats possibly through impairing NF-κB and STAT-1 activation. by Hou YC1, Liou KT, Chern CM, Wang YH, Liao JF, Chang S, Chou YH, Shen YC.(PubMed)
(1228) Silibinin attenuates cognitive deficits and decreases of dopamine and serotonin induced by repeated methamphetamine treatment by Lu P1, Mamiya T, Lu L, Mouri A, Niwa M, Kim HC, Zou LB, Nagai T, Yamada K, Ikejima T, Nabeshima T.(PubMed)
(1229) Silibinin prevents amyloid beta peptide-induced memory impairment and oxidative stress in mice. by Lu P1, Mamiya T, Lu LL, Mouri A, Zou L, Nagai T, Hiramatsu M, Ikejima T, Nabeshima T.(PubMed)

Friday, 17 February 2017

The holistic Prevention, Management and Treatment of Dementia due to Spleen Qi deficiency - TCM Herbal Cinnamon bark (Rou gui)

Kyle J. Norton (Scholar) 
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.


                                 Dementia

Dementia is defined as neuro degeneration syndrome among elder, affecting memory, thinking, orientation, comprehension, calculation, learning capacity, language, and judgement over 47 millions
of worldwide population, mostly in the West. The evaluation of the syndrome by holistic medicine has been lacking, especially through conventional medicine research and studies.


   TCM Treatment of Dementia Induced by Spleen Qi deficiency - TCM Herbal Cinnamon bark (Rou gui)

Based on Chinese ancient medical records, causes of dementia are the results of (*)
B.1. Deficiency of Qi, mainly due to
B.3.3. Spleen Qi deficiency
Spleen is a vital organ, according to traditional Chinese medicine, with function in absoring nutrients and transporting them to body's organs and cells. Spleen Qi deficiency is a condition of the inability of the spleen in maximized transportation of nutrients to body organs, including the brain. Prolong period of malnutrition of brain cells may induce abnormal functions in information transmitting or death of neurons, causing cognitive impairment(844), including learning and memory deficits(842) and changes in brain tissues and behavior patterns(843)(842).



4. Cinnamon bark (Rou gui)
Rou gui, an acrid, sweet, very hot herb, is also known as Cinnamon bark, used in TCM as anti-spasmodic(1110), antibiotic(1111), antigastric ulcers(1112), anti impotent and anti diabetic(1113)(1114) agents and to treat hepatitis(1115), flatulence(1116), weak digestion(1116), pain in solar plexus(1110), breast cancer(1117)(1118), tuberculosis(1119)(1120), etc., as it drains the liver heat, eliminates Qi accumulation, disperses nodules, reduces stagnation, etc.by enhancing the functions of heart, lung, bladder channels(1121).

Ingredients
1. Cinnamic aldehyde
2. Cinnamyl acetate
3. Eugenol
4. Aldehyde
5. Pinene
6. Coumarin
7. Cinnamyl alcohol
8. Cinnamic acid
9. Cinnzeylanol
10. Cinnzeylanine
11. Etc.

Cinnamon bark (Rou gui) used in the treatment of symptoms of neurological impairment(1108)(1109) in traditional Chinese medicine, may be due to its effectiveness of phytochemicals, including major constituent cinnamaldehyde (CA) and epicatechin (EC)(1122) in exertion of its neuroprotective effects(1123)(1123), through anti oxidative stress(1125), anti inflammatory(1124)) activities, against β-amyloid (Aβ) accumulation(1126) induced neurotoxicity causes of Alzheimer's disease.(1126)(1127) and neurodegeneration(1128).

4.1. In Alzheimer's disease
Cinnamon, a multifaceted medicinal plant have shown to consist activities against neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's diseases(1129) by blocking and reversing tau modification and aggregation(1131)(1130) and ischemic stroke induced cell swelling(1130). In β-amyloid polypeptide (Aβ), associated to the development of Alzheimer's disease(AD) mouses model, oral administration of cinnamon extract exhibited neuroroprotective effects in enhancing the fully recover of locomotion defects and totally abolished tetrameric species of Aβ in their brain(1132). In a high fat/high fructose diet induced Alzheimer's disease(AD) symptoms, cinnamon (CN) ameliorated enzyme phosphatase and proteins tensin homolog (PTEN), tau and amyloid precursor, associated to Alzheimer's disease(AD), through improved insulin sensitivity and related changes in the brain(1133).
According to The Business and Technology Center, West Lafayette, Chinesecinnamon, is one of the tested herb with potential for prevention and treatment of early onset of Alzheimer's disease(AD)(1134).

4.2. In Parkinson's disease
In a mice model, oral administration of cinnamon (Cinnamonum verum) powder upregulaed and/or maintained the level of Parkin/DJ-1, a beneficial proteins associated to degeneration progression of Parkinson's disease(1135). through protection of dopaminergic neurons(1136). In oligomeriztion of α-synuclein (α-syn) formation associated with the symptoms of Parkinson's Disease, cinnamon extract precipitation (CEppt), inhibited oligomeric and fibrillar forms of α-syn through ameliorated aggregation of β-amyloid polypeptide(1137).

4.3. In neuroprotective effects
Oxidative stress has shown to associate to brain damage due to its high consumption of oxygen.
Cinnamon polyphenols, during oxidative stress, exhibited neuroprotective effects in glial cells by reduced overexpression of the proinflammatory factors(1138) and enhanced prosurvival proteins protein levels (sirtuin 1, 2, and 3, deacetylases) associated to glioma cells survival(1139). Cinnamaldehyde, a major chemical found in cinnamon, inhibited uncontrolled activation of microglia contributing to neuroinflammation involved in the development of neurodegenerative diseases(1140). The herbal water extract, also exerted neuro protective effect against glutamate-induced neuronal death through the inhibition of Ca(2+) influx(1141).

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References
(842) Folate deficiency in rat pups during weaning causes learning and memory deficits. by Berrocal-Zaragoza MI1, Sequeira JM1, Murphy MM2, Fernandez-Ballart JD2, Abdel Baki SG3, Bergold PJ3, Quadros EV1.(PubMed)
(843) Changes in brain tissue and behavior patterns induced by single short-term fasting in mice. by Hisatomi Y1, Asakura K, Kugino K, Kurokawa M, Asakura T, Nakata K.(PubMed)
(844) Combined low calcium and lack magnesium is a risk factor for motor deficit in mice. by Taniguchi R1, Nakagawasai O, Tan-no K, Yamadera F, Nemoto W, Sato S, Yaoita F, Tadano T.(PubMed)

(1010) The protective effect of peony extract on acute myocardial infarction in rats by Mo X1, Zhao N, Du X, Bai L, Liu J.(PubMed)
(1011) Paeoniflorin protects against concanavalin A-induced hepatitis in mice. by Chen M1, Cao L2, Luo Y3, Feng X4, Sun L5, Wen M6, Peng S7.(PubMed)
(1012) [Treatment of irritable bowel syndrome by Chinese medicine and pharmacy: an analysis of data mining on experiences of experts].[Article in Chinese] by Zhang BH1, Gao R, Li ZH, Li BS, Wang FY, Tang XD.(PubMed)
(1013) Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of Schisandra and Paeonia extracts in the treatment of asthma by Chen X1, Huang Y1, Feng J1, Jiang XF1, Xiao WF1, Chen XX1.(PubMed)
(1014) The effect of a traditional Chinese prescription for a case of lung carcinoma by Kamei T1, Kumano H, Iwata K, Nariai Y, Matsumoto T.(PubMed)
(1015) [Effect of a peony root preparation on the status of the insulin and hemostatic system in animals during development of alloxan diabetes].[Article in Russian] by Ul'ianov AM, Tarasov IuA, Liapina LA, Pastorova VE, Uspenskaia MS.(PubMed)
(1016) Immunomodulatory and Antidiabetic Effects of a New Herbal Preparation (HemoHIM) on Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice by Kim JJ1, Choi J1, Lee MK2, Kang KY3, Paik MJ3, Jo SK4, Jung U4, Park HR4, Yee ST5.(PubMed)
(1017) Shao Yao(Complementary and Alternative Healing University)
(1018) Comparative pharmacokinetics of paeoniflorin in plasma of vascular dementia and normal rats orally administrated with Danggui-Shaoyao-San or pure paeoniflorin by Liu J1, Wang JS, Kong LY.(PubMed)
(1019) A traditional medicinal herb Paeonia suffruticosa and its active constituent 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucopyranose have potent anti-aggregation effects on Alzheimer's amyloid beta proteins in vitro and in vivo by Fujiwara H1, Tabuchi M, Yamaguchi T, Iwasaki K, Furukawa K, Sekiguchi K, Ikarashi Y, Kudo Y, Higuchi M, Saido TC, Maeda S, Takashima A, Hara M,Yaegashi N, Kase Y, Arai H.(PubMed)
(1020) Neuroprotective effect of paeoniflorin on cerebral ischemic rat by activating adenosine A1 receptor in a manner different from its classical agonists by Liu DZ1, Xie KQ, Ji XQ, Ye Y, Jiang CL, Zhu XZ.(PubMed)
(1021) Neuroprotective effects of paeoniflorin, but not the isomer albiflorin, are associated with the suppression of intracellular calcium and calcium/calmodulin protein kinase II in PC12 cells by Wang D1, Tan QR, Zhang ZJ.(PubMed)
(1022) Paeoniflorin inhibition of 6-hydroxydopamine-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells via suppressing reactive oxygen species-mediated PKCδ/NF-κB pathway.by Dong H1, Li R2, Yu C1, Xu T1, Zhang X1, Dong M3.(PubMed)
(1023) Paeonol attenuates cigarette smoke-induced lung inflammation by inhibiting ROS-sensitive inflammatory signaling by Liu MH1, Lin AH1, Lee HF2, Ko HK3, Lee TS1, Kou YR1.(PubMed)
(1024) [Advance in studies on effect of paeoniflorin on nervous system].[Article in Chinese] by Hu ZY1, Xu L, Yan R, Huang Y, Liu G, Zhou WX, Zhang YX.(PubMed)
(1025) Paeonol increases levels of cortical cytochrome oxidase and vascular actin and improves behavior in a rat model of Alzheimer's disease by Zhou J1, Zhou L, Hou D, Tang J, Sun J, Bondy SC.(PubMed)
(1026) Paeoniflorin attenuates learning impairment of aged rats in operant brightness discrimination task by Ohta H1, Matsumoto K, Shimizu M, Watanabe H.(PubMed)
(1027) [Effects of total paeony glucosides on mRNA expressions of Toll receptors and interleukin-33 in the brain tissue of D-galactose induced aging rats: an experimental research].[Article in Chinese] by Zhang HY1, Liu ZJ, Chen ZW.(PubMed)
(1028) [Advance in studies on effect of paeoniflorin on nervous system].[Article in Chinese] by Hu ZY1, Xu L, Yan R, Huang Y, Liu G, Zhou WX, Zhang YX.(PubMed)
(1028a) Neuroprotective effect of paeoniflorin on cerebral ischemic rat by activating adenosine A1 receptor in a manner different from its classical agonists by Liu DZ1, Xie KQ, Ji XQ, Ye Y, Jiang CL, Zhu XZ.(PubMed)
(1029) Mechanism of 6-hydroxydopamine neurotoxicity by Glinka Y1, Gassen M, Youdim MB.(PubMed)
(1030) Paeoniflorin inhibition of 6-hydroxydopamine-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells via suppressing reactive oxygen species-mediated PKCδ/NF-κB pathway by Dong H1, Li R2, Yu C1, Xu T1, Zhang X1, Dong M3.(PubMed)
(1031) Effects of the root bark of Paeonia suffruticosa on mitochondria-mediated neuroprotection in an MPTP-induced model of Parkinson's disease by Kim HG1, Park G2, Piao Y3, Kang MS4, Pak YK3, Hong SP1, Oh MS5.(PubMed)
(1032) Protective effect of paeoniflorin against glutamate-induced neurotoxicity in PC12 cells via Bcl-2/Bax signal pathway by Sun R1, Wang K, Wu D, Li X, Ou Y.(PubMed)
(1033) Polyphenols and neuroprotection against ischemia and neurodegeneration. by Lin B1.(PubMed)
(1034) Apolipoprotein E and Alzheimer disease: risk, mechanisms, and therapy by Chia-Chen Liu,1 Takahisa Kanekiyo,2 Huaxi Xu,1 and Guojun Bu1(PMC)
(1035) Increased A beta 42(43)-plaque deposition in early-onset familial Alzheimer's disease brains with the deletion of exon 9 and the missense point mutation (H163R) in the PS-1 gene by Ishii K1, Ii K, Hasegawa T, Shoji S, Doi A, Mori H.(PubMed)
(1036) Abeta-42 deposition precedes other changes in PS-1 Alzheimer's disease by Lippa CF, Nee LE, Mori H, St George-Hyslop P.(PubMed)
(1037) Peoniflorin attentuates Abeta((1-42))-mediated neurotoxicity by regulating calcium homeostasis and ameliorating oxidative stress in hippocampus of rats by Zhong SZ1, Ge QH, Li Q, Qu R, Ma SP.(PubMed)
(1038) A review of cognitive impairments in dementia with Lewy bodies relative to Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease with dementia by Metzler-Baddeley C1.(PubMed)
(1039) Paeoniflorin attenuates amyloid-beta peptide-induced neurotoxicity by ameliorating oxidative stress and regulating the NGF-mediated signaling in rats. by Lan Z1, Chen L2, Fu Q1, Ji W1, Wang S1, Liang Z1, Qu R3, Kong L4, Ma S5.(PubMed)
(1040) Paeoniflorin attenuates chronic cerebral hypoperfusion-induced learning dysfunction and brain damage in rats by Liu J1, Jin DZ, Xiao L, Zhu XZ.(PubMed)
(1041) Effects of paeoniflorin on the cerebral infarction, behavioral and cognitive impairments at the chronic stage of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats by Xiao L1, Wang YZ, Liu J, Luo XT, Ye Y, Zhu XZ.(PubMed)

Thursday, 16 February 2017

The holistic Prevention, Management and Treatment of Dementia due to Spleen Qi deficiency - TCM Herbal Safflower (Hong Hua)

Kyle J. Norton (Scholar) 
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.


                                 Dementia

Dementia is defined as neuro degeneration syndrome among elder, affecting memory, thinking, orientation, comprehension, calculation, learning capacity, language, and judgement over 47 millions
of worldwide population, mostly in the West. The evaluation of the syndrome by holistic medicine has been lacking, especially through conventional medicine research and studies.


   TCM Treatment of Dementia Induced by Spleen Qi deficiency - TCM Herbal Safflower (Hong Hua)

Based on Chinese ancient medical records, causes of dementia are the results of (*)
B.1. Deficiency of Qi, mainly due to
B.3.3. Spleen Qi deficiency
Spleen is a vital organ, according to traditional Chinese medicine, with function in absoring nutrients and transporting them to body's organs and cells. Spleen Qi deficiency is a condition of the inability of the spleen in maximized transportation of nutrients to body organs, including the brain. Prolong period of malnutrition of brain cells may induce abnormal functions in information transmitting or death of neurons, causing cognitive impairment(844), including learning and memory deficits(842) and changes in brain tissues and behavior patterns(843)(842).



3. Safflower (Hong Hua)
Safflower, is an acrid, warm herb in nature, used in tradition Chinese medicine as anti-bacterial(1070), anti viral(1068)(1069), analgesic(1071), diabetic(1072)(1073), immune stimulant(1074), anti-inflammatory(1071), anti-spasmodic(1075) agents. As a blood tonic in Chinese medicine, the herb is effective in treating dysmenorrhea(1075), amenorrhea(1075), by breaking up blood stagnation|(1077)(11078), improving blood flow(15) through warm-pungent-liver efficiency network(1079) and regulation of female reproductivehormone(1080) via liver, heart channels(1076).

Phytochemicals
1. Neocarthamin
2. Carthamin
3. Carthamone
4. Carthamidin
5. Saffloryellow
6. Saffloryellow-A
7. Apalmitic acid
8. Myristic acid
9. Lauric acid
10. Etc.

Herbal Safflower (Hong Hua) used in the treatment of symptoms of degenerative diseases(1091) in traditional Chinese medicine, may be due to its effectiveness of phytochemicals, including major constituent hydroxy-safflor yellow A(1081)baicalin, baicalein, wogonin(1088), in exertion of its neuroprotective effects(1082)(1083), through anti oxidative stress(1086), anti inflammatory(1084))(1085) activities, against β-amyloid (Aβ) accumulation(1081) induced neurotoxicity causes of Alzheimer's disease.(1087)(1089) and neurodegeneration(1090).

3.1. In Alzheimer's disease
Neuroinflammation has shown to be a major contribution to the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD)(1092). Hydroxy-safflor yellow A (HSYA), isolated from safflower, inhibited Aβ 1-43₁ induced inflammation(1096) through anti microglia-mediated neurotoxicity activity(1094). In PC12 cells induced by β-amyloid neurotoxicity, the phytochemical also inhibited cell viability, glutathione level, through ameliorated enzymes found extensively in body tissues, formation of DNA fragmentation, levels of reactive oxygen species(1095) and reduced pro-inflammatory mediators(1097).


3.2. In Neuroprotective effects(1098)
Hydroxy-safflor yellow A (HSYA) at the molecular level, showed to inhibite energy metabolism disruption, excitatory amino acid toxicity, oxidative stress caused by impaired metabolism in rats with ischemia, through suppressing proinflammatory and upregulating anti-inflammatory mechanism(1099). According to Tianjin Medical University General Hospita, the herb also exerted its neuroprotective effects by inhibiting the accumulation of amyloid-β peptide (Aβ), a major protein component of senile plaques induced neurotoxicity via decreased production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species(1101), ROS marker, malondialdehyde, and increased the level of glutathione, stabilized mitochondrial membrane(1100) and protected against excitotoxic neuronal death(1102).

3.3. In memory dysfunction
Intake of safflower oil has shown to improve learning and memory ability in n-3 fatty acid deficient male mice(1103) and in an age-related neuro deteriorative mouse model(1106), probably through modulated physiological properties of entorhinal cortex neurons(1104) and the balance of ratio of brain phospholipid(1107), respectively. Nicotiflorin, a natural flavonoid extracted from safflower, in cerebral multi-infarct dementia in rats model, showed to enhance spatial memory through reducd ROS production(1105).

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References
(842) Folate deficiency in rat pups during weaning causes learning and memory deficits. by Berrocal-Zaragoza MI1, Sequeira JM1, Murphy MM2, Fernandez-Ballart JD2, Abdel Baki SG3, Bergold PJ3, Quadros EV1.(PubMed)
(843) Changes in brain tissue and behavior patterns induced by single short-term fasting in mice. by Hisatomi Y1, Asakura K, Kugino K, Kurokawa M, Asakura T, Nakata K.(PubMed)
(844) Combined low calcium and lack magnesium is a risk factor for motor deficit in mice. by Taniguchi R1, Nakagawasai O, Tan-no K, Yamadera F, Nemoto W, Sato S, Yaoita F, Tadano T.(PubMed)

(1070) Possibility of fighting food borne bacteria by egyptian folk medicinal herbs and spices extracts by Tayel AA1, El-Tras WF.(PubMed)
(1071) Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of extract and two isolated flavonoids of Carthamus tinctorius L by Wang Y1, Chen P1, Tang C1, Wang Y1, Li Y1, Zhang H2.(PubMed)
(1072) Dietary treatments enriched in olive and safflower oils regulate seric and placental matrix metalloproteinases in maternal diabetes. by Martinez N1, Sosa M, Higa R, Fornes D, Capobianco E, Jawerbaum A.(PubMed)

(1073) Folic acid and safflower oil supplementation interacts and protects embryos from maternal diabetes-induced damage by Higa R1, Kurtz M, Mazzucco MB, Musikant D, White V, Jawerbaum A.(PubMed)
(1074) [Effects of Hengyan medicinal recipe on the regulation of immunity in patients with severe sepsis: a prospective clinical trial].[Article in Chinese] by Zhang ZH1, Zhou G, Gong X, Zhang R, Qu XG, Zeng C, Liu JL.(PubMed)
(1075) Towards a better understanding of medicinal uses of Carthamus tinctorius L. in traditional Chinese medicine: a phytochemical and pharmacological review by Zhou X1, Tang L1, Xu Y1, Zhou G1, Wang Z2.(PubMed)
(1076) Hong Hua(Complementary and Alternative Healing University)
(1077) [Effect of jiantai liquid on expression of estrogen and progesterone receptors in uterus of mice with embryo implantation dysfunction induced by mifepristone].[Article in Chinese] by Liu YJ1, Huang GY, Yang MW, Gong P, Lu F.(PubMed)
(1078) [A clinical study of Safflower Yellow injection in treating coronary heart disease angina pectoris with Xin-blood stagnation syndrome].[Article in Chinese by Zhang Q1, Peng JH, Zhang XN.(PubMed)
(1079) [Analysis on anti-hepatoma effect of medicine invigorating blood circulation and eliminating blood stasis based on warm-pungent-liver efficiency network].[Article in Chinese] by Gu H, Ma L, Yuan B, Zhang YL, Wang Y, Qiao YJ.(PubMed)
(1080) Huangqi-Honghua combination and its main components ameliorate cerebral infarction with Qi deficiency and blood stasis syndrome by antioxidant action in rats by Cao J1, Chen Z2, Zhu Y1, Li Y1, Guo C1, Gao K1, Chen L1, Shi X1, Zhang X1, Yang Z3, Wen A4.(PubMed)
(1081) Huangqi-Honghua combination and its main components ameliorate cerebral infarction with Qi deficiency and blood stasis syndrome by antioxidant action in rats by Cao J1, Chen Z2, Zhu Y1, Li Y1, Guo C1, Gao K1, Chen L1, Shi X1, Zhang X1, Yang Z3, Wen A4.(PubMed)
(1082) Protective effects of Nicotiflorin on reducing memory dysfunction, energy metabolism failure and oxidative stress in multi-infarct dementia model rats by Huang JL1, Fu ST, Jiang YY, Cao YB, Guo ML, Wang Y, Xu Z.(PubMed)
(1083) Protective effects of hydroxysafflor yellow A on β-amyloid-induced neurotoxicity in PC12 cells by Kong SZ1, Xian YF, Ip SP, Lai XP, Shi XG, Lin ZX, Su ZR.(PubMed)
(1084) Hydroxy-safflor yellow A inhibits neuroinflammation mediated by Aβ₁₋₄₂ in BV-2 cells by Zhang Z1, Wu Z2, Zhu X2, Hui X3, Pan J2, Xu Y4.(PubMed)
(1085) Hydroxysafflor yellow A suppresses inflammatory responses of BV2 microglia after oxygen-glucose deprivation by Li J1, Zhang S, Lu M, Chen Z, Chen C, Han L, Zhang M, Xu Y.(PubMed)
(1086) Carthamus red from Carthamus tinctorius L. exerts antioxidant and hepatoprotective effect against CCl(4)-induced liver damage in rats via the Nrf2 pathway by Wu S1, Yue Y, Tian H, Li Z, Li X, He W, Ding H.(PubMed)
(1087) Dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid depletion activates caspases and decreases NMDA receptors in the brain of a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease by Calon F1, Lim GP, Morihara T, Yang F, Ubeda O, Salem N Jr, Frautschy SA, Cole GM.(PubMed)
(1088) Polyphenols and neuroprotection against ischemia and neurodegeneration by Lin B1.(PubMed)
(1089) Selective PCAF inhibitor ameliorates cognitive and behavioral deficits by suppressing NF-κB-mediated neuroinflammation induced by Aβ in a model of Alzheimer's disease by Park SY1, Kim MJ2, Kim YJ2, Lee YH3, Bae D4, Kim S4, Na Y5, Yoon HG1.(PubMed)
(1090) Timing of neurodegeneration and beta-amyloid (Abeta) peptide deposition in the brain of aging kokanee salmon by Maldonado TA1, Jones RE, Norris DO.(PubMed)
(1091) Polyphenols and neuroprotection against ischemia and neurodegeneration by Lin B1.(PubMed)
(1092) Neuroinflammation in Alzheimer's disease: chemokines produced by astrocytes and chemokine receptors by Liu C1, Cui G2, Zhu M3, Kang X4, Guo H5(PubMed)
(1093) The evolving biology of microglia in Alzheimer's disease by Malm TM1, Jay TR, Landreth GE.(PubMed)
(1094) Hydroxy-safflor yellow A inhibits neuroinflammation mediated by Aβ₁₋₄₂ in BV-2 cells by Zhang Z1, Wu Z2, Zhu X2, Hui X3, Pan J2, Xu Y4.(PubMed)
(1095) Protective effects of hydroxysafflor yellow A on β-amyloid-induced neurotoxicity in PC12 cells by Kong SZ1, Xian YF, Ip SP, Lai XP, Shi XG, Lin ZX, Su ZR.(PubMed)
(1096) Hydroxysafflor yellow A suppresses inflammatory responses of BV2 microglia after oxygen-glucose deprivation. by Li J1, Zhang S, Lu M, Chen Z, Chen C, Han L, Zhang M, Xu Y.(PubMed)
(1097) Hydroxy-safflor yellow A attenuates Aβ₁₋₄₂-induced inflammation by modulating the JAK2/STAT3/NF-κB pathway by Zhang ZH1, Yu LJ2, Hui XC3, Wu ZZ2, Yin KL2, Yang H4, Xu Y5.(PubMed)
(1098) Effects of hydroxysafflor yellow A on the activity and mRNA expression of four CYP isozymes in rats by Xu RA1, Xu ZS2, Ge RS3.(PubMed)
(1099) A Systematic, Integrated Study on the Neuroprotective Effects of Hydroxysafflor Yellow A Revealed by 1H NMR-Based Metabonomics and the NF-κB Pathwa by Yuanyan Liu, 1 , 2 Zeqin Lian, 1 Haibo Zhu, 1 Yinghong Wang, 1 ,* Shishan Yu, 1 ,* Tingting Chen, 1 Jing Qu, 1 Jianbei Li, 1Shuanggang Ma, 1 and Xianhong Chen 1(PMC)
(1100) Protective effect of isorhynchophylline against β-amyloid-induced neurotoxicity in PC12 cells by Xian YF1, Lin ZX, Mao QQ, Ip SP, Su ZR, Lai XP.(PubMed)
(1101) Neuroprotection of hydroxysafflor yellow A in the transient focal ischemia: inhibition of protein oxidation/nitration, 12/15-lipoxygenase and blood-brain barrier disruption by Sun L1, Yang L, Xu YW, Liang H, Han J, Zhao RJ, Cheng Y.(PubMed)
(1102) Neuroprotective effects of hydroxysafflor yellow A against excitotoxic neuronal death partially through down-regulation of NR2B-containing NMDA receptors by Yang Q1, Yang ZF, Liu SB, Zhang XN, Hou Y, Li XQ, Wu YM, Wen AD, Zhao MG.(PubMed)
(1104) Dietary intake of unsaturated fatty acids modulates physiological properties of entorhinal cortex neurons in mice by Arsenault D1, Julien C, Chen CT, Bazinet RP, Calon F.(PubMed)
(1105) Protective effects of Nicotiflorin on reducing memory dysfunction, energy metabolism failure and oxidative stress in multi-infarct dementia model rats by Huang JL1, Fu ST, Jiang YY, Cao YB, Guo ML, Wang Y, Xu Z.(PubMed)
(1106) Dietary alpha-linolenate/linoleate balance influences learning and memory in the senescence-accelerated mouse (SAM) by Umezawa M1, Ohta A, Tojo H, Yagi H, Hosokawa M, Takeda T.(PubMed)
(1107) High-linoleate and high-alpha-linolenate diets affect learning ability and natural behavior in SAMR1 mice by Umezawa M1, Kogishi K, Tojo H, Yoshimura S, Seriu N, Ohta A, Takeda T, Hosokawa M.(PubMed)

Wednesday, 15 February 2017

The holistic Prevention, Management and Treatment of Dementia due to Spleen Qi deficiency - TCM Herbal Chain Hu (Bupleurum)

Kyle J. Norton (Scholar) 
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.


                                 Dementia

Dementia is defined as neuro degeneration syndrome among elder, affecting memory, thinking, orientation, comprehension, calculation, learning capacity, language, and judgement over 47 millions
of worldwide population, mostly in the West. The evaluation of the syndrome by holistic medicine has been lacking, especially through conventional medicine research and studies.


   TCM Treatment of Dementia Induced by Spleen Qi deficiency - TCM Herbal Chain Hu (Bupleurum)

Based on Chinese ancient medical records, causes of dementia are the results of (*)
B.1. Deficiency of Qi, mainly due to
B.3.3. Spleen Qi deficiency
Spleen is a vital organ, according to traditional Chinese medicine, with function in absoring nutrients and transporting them to body's organs and cells. Spleen Qi deficiency is a condition of the inability of the spleen in maximized transportation of nutrients to body organs, including the brain. Prolong period of malnutrition of brain cells may induce abnormal functions in information transmitting or death of neurons, causing cognitive impairment(844), including learning and memory deficits(842) and changes in brain tissues and behavior patterns(843)(842).



2. Chai Hu (Bupleurum)
Chai Hu, the bitter, slightly cold herb is also known as bupleurum root, used in TCM as antitrypanosomal, antimicrobial and antiviral, such as cold and influenza, alternated chill and fever, malaria(1047), cytotoxic(1045) and anti-cancer agents(1046) and to treat irregular menses, prolapse of uterus and rectum(1048), etc., as it regulates and clears heat, improves liver function, raises Yang(1048) and resolves depression and stagnation, etc. by enhancing the functions of liver, gall bladder, pericardium, triple burner channels.

Phytochemicals
1. β-terpinene
2. imonene
3. β-fenchene
4. ulegone
5. Isoborneol
6. β-terpineol
7. α-copaene
8. Humulene
9. A-farnesene10. Aromadendrene
11. Cis-caryophyllene
12. β-elemene,13. Gamma-muurolene
14. Patchoulane
15. Pootkatone
16. Ledol
17. Etc.

Herbal chai hu used in the treatment and prevention of dementia(1049)(1050) in traditional Chinese medicine, may be due to its effectiveness of phytochemicals in exertion of its neuroprotective effects(1051) through its cytoprotection of neuron, and neuroprotective mechanisms(1052), against apoptosis of neurons(1051) due to Aβ oligomer-induced neuronal damage(1060) in concentration of corticosterone on hippocampal neurons(1059) in a dose-dependent manner.
Yokukansan, a popular herbal combination in Japan and China, containing chai hu, may be the next potential herbal formula used for treatment of Alzheimer's disease, Lewy body disease, Parkinson's disease, especially for the behavioral and psychiatric symptoms of dementia BPSD)(1064)(1065)(1066).

2.1. In dementia symptoms
In dementia, Yokukansan, also known as TJ-54, composed of sev Angelica acutiloba, Atractylodes lancea, Bupleurum falcatum, Poria cocos, Glycyrrhiza uralensis, Cnidium officinale and Uncaria rhynchophylla,(1052)showed to ameliorate the memory disturbance, anxiety-like behavior, aggressive behaviors, decrease in social behaviors, learning deficits and non-cognitive defects(1055) through improvement of neuronal and astroglial cells, via inhibit glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity(1053)(1054). According to 1KeimeiMemorial Hospital in Japan, the formula also showed to improve behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) together with donepezil in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD)(1056).

2.2. In Alzheimer's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies
In Alzheimer's disease, Yokukansan improved psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD)(1058), such as hallucinations, agitation, anxiety, irritability or abnormal behavior(1057) in elderly patients1056). In patients with dementia with Lewy bodies, Kampo medicine, yokukansan (YKS), including chai hu, also improved behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD), through neuropsychiatric Inventory scores(1061).

2.3. In Parkinson's disease
In neuropsychiatric symptoms in patients with Parkinson's disease, yokukansan, containing Chai hu, using the Unified PD Rating Scale part III (UPDRS-III) and Hoehn and Yahr scale, showed effectively in ameliorated symptoms of delusions, agitation, depression, euphoria, disinhibition with aberrant motor activity but irritability(1062). In behavioral and psychological symptoms, the herbal formula, also exhibited improvements of these symptoms, without worsening cognitive function, ability to perform activities of daily living, or parkinsonism, after 4 weeks(1063). Yokukansankachimpihange, another formula containing chai hu, showed to exhibit anti hallucinate effects, through its major phytochemical atractylenolide III and β-eudesmol, via its antagonistic activity against serotonin receptors induced non-motor symptom of Parkinson's disease and various forms of dementias(1067).

According to traditional Chinese medicine, the effectiveness of a herbal formula, is not results of single ingredient or single herb itself, but the combination of all ingredients of all herbs in the formula, even some herbs in the formula may show significant efficacies in Western studies and clinical trials.

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Using Holistic Ancient Chinese Medicine


References
(842) Folate deficiency in rat pups during weaning causes learning and memory deficits. by Berrocal-Zaragoza MI1, Sequeira JM1, Murphy MM2, Fernandez-Ballart JD2, Abdel Baki SG3, Bergold PJ3, Quadros EV1.(PubMed)
(843) Changes in brain tissue and behavior patterns induced by single short-term fasting in mice. by Hisatomi Y1, Asakura K, Kugino K, Kurokawa M, Asakura T, Nakata K.(PubMed)
(844) Combined low calcium and lack magnesium is a risk factor for motor deficit in mice. by Taniguchi R1, Nakagawasai O, Tan-no K, Yamadera F, Nemoto W, Sato S, Yaoita F, Tadano T.(PubMed)
(1045) Anti-infective and cytotoxic properties of Bupleurum marginatum by Ashour ML, El-Readi MZ, Hamoud R, Eid SY, El Ahmady SH, Nibret E, Herrmann F, Youns M, Tahrani A, Kaufmann D, Wink M1.(PubMed)
(1046) Reactive oxygen species-mediated apoptosis contributes to chemosensitization effect of saikosaponins on cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity in cancer cells by Wang Q1, Zheng XL, Yang L, Shi F, Gao LB, Zhong YJ, Sun H, He F, Lin Y, Wang X.(PubMed)
(1047) Ethnoveterinary plant remedies used by Nu people in NW Yunnan of China by Shen S1, Qian J, Ren J.(PubMed)
(1048) Chai Hu(Complementary and Alternative Healing University)
(1049) Use of Yokukansan (TJ-54) in the treatment of neurological disorders: a review by de Caires S1, Steenkamp V.(PubMed)
(1050) Effects of yokukansan, a traditional Japanese medicine, on memory disturbance and behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia in thiamine-deficient rats by Ikarashi Y1, Iizuka S, Imamura S, Yamaguchi T, Sekiguchi K, Kanno H, Kawakami Z, Yuzurihara M, Kase Y, Takeda S.(PubMed)
(1051) Neuroprotective effects of total saikosaponins of Bupleurum yinchowense on corticosterone-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells by Li ZY1, Guo Z, Liu YM, Liu XM, Chang Q, Liao YH, Pan RL.(PubMed)
(1052) Ethanol extract of Bupleurum falcatum Linne and saikosaponins inhibit neuroinflammation via inhibition of NF-κB by Park WH1, Kang S1, Piao Y1, Pak CJ1, Oh MS2, Kim J3, Kang MS1, Pak YK4.(PubMed)
(1053)
(1054) Neuroprotective effects of yokukansan, a traditional Japanese medicine, on glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity in cultured cells by Kawakami Z1, Kanno H, Ueki T, Terawaki K, Tabuchi M, Ikarashi Y, Kase Y.(PubMed)
(1055) Ameliorative effects of yokukansan, a traditional Japanese medicine, on learning and non-cognitive disturbances in the Tg2576 mouse model of Alzheimer's disease by Tabuchi M1, Yamaguchi T, Iizuka S, Imamura S, Ikarashi Y, Kase Y.(PubMed)
(1056) Effects of Yokukansan on behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia in regular treatment for Alzheimer's disease by Okahara K1, Ishida Y, Hayashi Y, Inoue T, Tsuruta K, Takeuchi K, Yoshimuta H, Kiue K, Ninomiya Y, Kawano J, Yoshida K, Noda S, Tomita S, Fujimoto M,Hosomi J, Mitsuyama Y.(PubMed)
(1057) Treatment of behavioral and psychological symptoms of Alzheimer-type dementia with Yokukansan in clinical practice. by Hayashi Y1, Ishida Y, Inoue T, Udagawa M, Takeuchi K, Yoshimuta H, Kiue K, Ninomiya Y, Kawano J, Sameshima T, Kawahara T, Goto I, Shudo K, Kurayama S, Nakamura J, Okahara K, Mitsuyama Y.(PubMed)
(1058) Are cholinesterase inhibitors effective in the management of the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia in Alzheimer's disease? A systematic review of randomized, placebo-controlled trials of donepezil, rivastigmine and galantamine by Rodda J1, Morgan S, Walker Z.(PubMed)
(1059) Neuroprotective effect of yokukansan against cytotoxicity induced by corticosterone on mouse hippocampal neurons. by Nakatani Y1, Tsuji M2, Amano T3, Miyagawa K4, Miyagishi H4, Saito A4, Imai T4, Takeda K4, Ishii D4, Takeda H2.(PubMed)
(1060) Glycyrrhiza and Uncaria Hook contribute to protective effect of traditional Japanese medicine yokukansan against amyloid β oligomer-induced neuronal death. by Kanno H1, Kawakami Z, Iizuka S, Tabuchi M, Mizoguchi K, Ikarashi Y, Kase Y.(PubMed)
(1061) Improvement in delusions and hallucinations in patients with dementia with Lewy bodies upon administration of yokukansan, a traditional Japanese medicine.
Iwasaki K1, Kosaka K, Mori H, Okitsu R, Furukawa K, Manabe Y, Yoshita M, Kanamori A, Ito N by Wada K, Kitayama M, Horiguchi J, Yamaguchi S, Takayama S,Fukuhara R, Ouma S, Nakano S, Hashimoto M, Kinoshita T.(PubMed)
(1062) An exploratory study of the efficacy and safety of yokukansan for neuropsychiatric symptoms in patients with Parkinson's disease. by Hatano T1, Hattori N, Kawanabe T, Terayama Y, Suzuki N, Iwasaki Y, Fujioka T; Yokukansan Parkinson’s Disease Study Group.(PubMed)
(1063) Successful treatment with Yokukansan for behavioral and psychological symptoms of Parkinsonian dementia by Kawanabe T1, Yoritaka A, Shimura H, Oizumi H, Tanaka S, Hattori N.(PubMed)
(1064) New possibility of traditional Chinese and Japanese medicine as treatment for behavioral and psychiatric symptoms in dementia by Kung FC1, Ishii R, Liu HC, Takeda M.(PubMed)
(1065) A randomized cross-over study of a traditional Japanese medicine (kampo), yokukansan, in the treatment of the behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia by Mizukami K1, Asada T, Kinoshita T, Tanaka K, Sonohara K, Nakai R, Yamaguchi K, Hanyu H, Kanaya K, Takao T, Okada M, Kudo S, Kotoku H, Iwakiri M, Kurita H, Miyamura T, Kawasaki Y, Omori K, Shiozaki K, Odawara T, Suzuki T, Yamada S, Nakamura Y, Toba K.(PubMed)
(1066) Yokukan-san: a review of the evidence for use of this Kampo herbal formula in dementia and psychiatric conditions. by Okamoto H1, Iyo M2, Ueda K3, Han C3, Hirasaki Y3, Namiki T3.(PubMed)
(1067) Pharmacological effects of "jutsu" (Atractylodis rhizome and Atractylodis lanceae rhizome) on 1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane (DOI)-induced head twitch response in mice (I).

Murayama C1, Wang CC2, Michihara S3, Norimoto H4.(PubMed)

Tuesday, 14 February 2017

The holistic Prevention, Management and Treatment of Dementia due to Spleen Qi deficiency - TCM Herbal Peony (Chi Shao)

Kyle J. Norton (Scholar) 
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.


                                 Dementia

Dementia is defined as neuro degeneration syndrome among elder, affecting memory, thinking, orientation, comprehension, calculation, learning capacity, language, and judgement over 47 millions
of worldwide population, mostly in the West. The evaluation of the syndrome by holistic medicine has been lacking, especially through conventional medicine research and studies.


   TCM Treatment of Dementia Induced by Spleen Qi deficiency - TCM Herbal Peony (Chi Shao)

Based on Chinese ancient medical records, causes of dementia are the results of (*)
B.1. Deficiency of Qi, mainly due to
B.3.3. Spleen Qi deficiency
Spleen is a vital organ, according to traditional Chinese medicine, with function in absoring nutrients and transporting them to body's organs and cells. Spleen Qi deficiency is a condition of the inability of the spleen in maximized transportation of nutrients to body organs, including the brain. Prolong period of malnutrition of brain cells may induce abnormal functions in information transmitting or death of neurons, causing cognitive impairment(844), including learning and memory deficits(842) and changes in brain tissues and behavior patterns(843)(842).



1. Peony (Chi Shao)
Chi Shao or Chi Shao Yao with bitter, sour taste and cool in nature is also known as Peony Root, used in TCM as antispasmodic(1000)(1001), anti-inflammatory(1002)(1003), anti allergic(1004) antibiotic(1005), anticonvulsant(1006), analgesic(1007), anxiolytic(1008) agents and to lower blood pressure(1009), dilate peripheral blood vessels, coronary arteries against heart attack(1010), treat viral hepatitis(1011), chronic constipation(1012), asthma(1013), whooping cough(1014), diabetes(1015)(1016), etc., as it clears heat, cools blood, eliminates blood accumulation, calms paindilates, etc., by enhancing the functions of liver and spleen channels(1017).
Phytochemicals
1. Essential oil
2. Resin
3. Paeoniflorin
4. Paeonol
5. Paeonin
6. Albiflorin
7. Triterpenoids
8. Sistosterol
9. Oxypaeoniflorin
10. Benzoylpaeoniflorin
11. Benzoic acid
12. β sitosterol
13. Gallotannin
14. Pedunculagin
15. 1-O-Galloylpedunculagin
16. Eugeniin
17. Tannin acid
18. Etc.

Herbal shao yao used in traditional Chinese medicine for treatment and prevention of dementia(1018)(1019), may be due to its effectiveness of phytochemicals, including major constituent paeoniflorin, in exertion of its neuroprotective effects(1020)(1021) through anti oxidative stress(1022), anti inflammatory(1023), improved neural synapse plasticity(1024) mechanisms, against β-amyloid (Aβ) accumulation(1025) induced senile dementia and aging-induced cognitive dysfunction(1026).

1.1. Parkinson's disease PD
Strong evidences suggested that peony, possesses wide pharmacological effects in nervous system(1027)(1028). Paeoniflorin, a phytochemical isolated from peony, in PC12 cells induced by 6-OHDA found in patient with Parkinson's disease(1030), showed to suppress mitochondria apoptosis, through its antioxidant capability in increasing glutathione (GSH)(1032), by inhibiting reactive oxygen species (ROS)(1031). In Parkinson's disease (PD) progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons involved movement and in mouse model with mitochondrial dysfunction, peony significantly inhibited mitochondria-mediated apoptosis, via the regulation of expression of immunity, inhibition of cytochrome C associated with the inner membrane of the mitochondrion. release and caspase-3, a protein encoded by in CASP3gene, activation(1031). According to University of Miami, polyphenols of bai shao, included baicalin, baicalein, wogonin (in scutellaria) paeonol, paeonoside, and paeoniflori, exerted neuroprotective efficacy, probably through improving cerebral blood circulation, involved alleviation of the symptoms of degenerative diseases, Alzheimer's disease (AD) andParkinson's disease (PD)(1033).

1.2. In Alzheimer's disease AD
Abeta42 deposition in hippocampus has shown to induce brain inflammation causes of early onset of Alzheimer's disease AD(1034)(1035). Paeonol(2'-hydroxy-4'-methoxyacetophenone;1-(2-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)ethan-1-one), found in peony, not only protected the nervous system against accumulation of amyloid peptide, Aβ1-42, through its anti-inflammatory and free radical scavenging properties, but also slowed down and regulated the pathogenic processes associated with AD, through morphological, biochemical and behavioral activities(1036). Aqueous extract of the dry root ofPeony in Abeta((1-42))-induced rats, also inhibited Abeta-induced neurotoxicity, through ameliorated cognitive deficit, cell apoptosis in dose-dependent manner(1037).

1.3. In cognitive impairment
Cognitive impairment is common in patients with the neurodegenerative disease, including Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD, Paeoniflorin, isolated from the aqueous extract of peony, in rat model, not only showed to promote the cognitive ability, exhibited anti-depressant-like effect and reduced toxicity, but also attenuated the oxidative stress induced Aβ(1-42) by regulating choline acetyltrasferase and the activity of acetylcholine esterase in the hippocampus of Aβ(1-42)(1038)(1039). In Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion, associated with the cognitive deficits of AD, the phytochemical also attenuated cognitive deficit and brain damage through ameliorated astrocytes(star-shaped glial cells in CNS) and microglias(glial cell in CNS) in hippocampus(1040). According to Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, on cerebral infarction induced neurological symptoms, paeoniflorin (PF) significantly reduced the infarct volume causes of cognitive impairment(1041).

1.4. In learning and memory
Supplementation of paeonol extracted from peony, in d-galactose (D-gal)-induced aging mice, significantly improved the learning and memory ability through reduction of oxidative stress, cognitive impairment and neurotoxicity, according to China Pharmaceutical University(1042). Danggui-Shaoyao-San (DSS), the herbal formula containing peony and 5 other herbs, used to treat gynecological disorders and neural dysfunctions, in the same model study, showed effectively in improved cognitive ability, through ameliorating oxidative stress induced neuronal apoptosis in the brain(1043). Paeoniflorin, a major constituent of peony, also exhibited its beneficial effect on learning and memory impairment in rodents, by reversed the suppressible effects of adenosine as shown on passive avoidance test and inhibition of long-term potentiation (LTP)(1044).

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References
(842) Folate deficiency in rat pups during weaning causes learning and memory deficits. by Berrocal-Zaragoza MI1, Sequeira JM1, Murphy MM2, Fernandez-Ballart JD2, Abdel Baki SG3, Bergold PJ3, Quadros EV1.(PubMed)
(843) Changes in brain tissue and behavior patterns induced by single short-term fasting in mice. by Hisatomi Y1, Asakura K, Kugino K, Kurokawa M, Asakura T, Nakata K.(PubMed)
(844) Combined low calcium and lack magnesium is a risk factor for motor deficit in mice. by Taniguchi R1, Nakagawasai O, Tan-no K, Yamadera F, Nemoto W, Sato S, Yaoita F, Tadano T.(PubMed)

(1002) Moutan cortex radicis improves lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in rats through anti-inflammation by Fu PK1, Yang CY, Tsai TH, Hsieh CL.(PubMed)
(1003) Paeonol attenuates high-fat-diet-induced atherosclerosis in rabbits by anti-inflammatory activity by Li H1, Dai M, Jia W.(PubMed)
(1004) Antiallergic effect of the root of Paeonia lactiflora and its constituents paeoniflorin and paeonol. by Lee B1, Shin YW, Bae EA, Han SJ, Kim JS, Kang SS, Kim DH.(PubMed)
(1005) Growth-inhibiting, bactericidal, and urease inhibitory effects of Paeonia lactiflora root constituents and related compounds on antibiotic-susceptible and -resistant strains of Helicobacter pylori by Ngan LT1, Moon JK, Shibamoto T, Ahn YJ.(PubMed)
(1006) Peony root extract upregulates transthyretin and phosphoglycerate mutase in mouse cobalt focus seizure by Kajiwara K1, Sunaga K, Tsuda T, Sugaya A, Sugaya E, Kimura M.(PubMed)
(1007) Clinical efficacy of aconitum-containing traditional Chinese medicine for diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain by Feng L1, Liu WK, Deng L, Tian JX, Tong XL.(PubMed)
(1008) Anxiolytic-like effect of paeonol in mice. by Mi XJ1, Chen SW, Wang WJ, Wang R, Zhang YJ, Li WJ, Li YL.(PubMed)
(1009) [Effects of yishenjiangyafang on blood pressure and protecting renal function in RPH rats].[Article in Chinese] by Chen ML1, Liu WJ, Wang CY, Zhu XM, Yin JF, Wang DX, Liu P.(PubMed)
(1010) The protective effect of peony extract on acute myocardial infarction in rats by Mo X1, Zhao N, Du X, Bai L, Liu J.(PubMed)
(1011) Paeoniflorin protects against concanavalin A-induced hepatitis in mice. by Chen M1, Cao L2, Luo Y3, Feng X4, Sun L5, Wen M6, Peng S7.(PubMed)
(1012) [Treatment of irritable bowel syndrome by Chinese medicine and pharmacy: an analysis of data mining on experiences of experts].[Article in Chinese] by Zhang BH1, Gao R, Li ZH, Li BS, Wang FY, Tang XD.(PubMed)
(1013) Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of Schisandra and Paeonia extracts in the treatment of asthma by Chen X1, Huang Y1, Feng J1, Jiang XF1, Xiao WF1, Chen XX1.(PubMed)
(1014) The effect of a traditional Chinese prescription for a case of lung carcinoma by Kamei T1, Kumano H, Iwata K, Nariai Y, Matsumoto T.(PubMed)
(1015) [Effect of a peony root preparation on the status of the insulin and hemostatic system in animals during development of alloxan diabetes].[Article in Russian] by Ul'ianov AM, Tarasov IuA, Liapina LA, Pastorova VE, Uspenskaia MS.(PubMed)
(1016) Immunomodulatory and Antidiabetic Effects of a New Herbal Preparation (HemoHIM) on Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice by Kim JJ1, Choi J1, Lee MK2, Kang KY3, Paik MJ3, Jo SK4, Jung U4, Park HR4, Yee ST5.(PubMed)
(1017) Shao Yao(Complementary and Alternative Healing University)
(1018) Comparative pharmacokinetics of paeoniflorin in plasma of vascular dementia and normal rats orally administrated with Danggui-Shaoyao-San or pure paeoniflorin by Liu J1, Wang JS, Kong LY.(PubMed)
(1019) A traditional medicinal herb Paeonia suffruticosa and its active constituent 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucopyranose have potent anti-aggregation effects on Alzheimer's amyloid beta proteins in vitro and in vivo by Fujiwara H1, Tabuchi M, Yamaguchi T, Iwasaki K, Furukawa K, Sekiguchi K, Ikarashi Y, Kudo Y, Higuchi M, Saido TC, Maeda S, Takashima A, Hara M,Yaegashi N, Kase Y, Arai H.(PubMed)
(1020) Neuroprotective effect of paeoniflorin on cerebral ischemic rat by activating adenosine A1 receptor in a manner different from its classical agonists by Liu DZ1, Xie KQ, Ji XQ, Ye Y, Jiang CL, Zhu XZ.(PubMed)
(1021) Neuroprotective effects of paeoniflorin, but not the isomer albiflorin, are associated with the suppression of intracellular calcium and calcium/calmodulin protein kinase II in PC12 cells by Wang D1, Tan QR, Zhang ZJ.(PubMed)
(1022) Paeoniflorin inhibition of 6-hydroxydopamine-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells via suppressing reactive oxygen species-mediated PKCδ/NF-κB pathway.by Dong H1, Li R2, Yu C1, Xu T1, Zhang X1, Dong M3.(PubMed)
(1023) Paeonol attenuates cigarette smoke-induced lung inflammation by inhibiting ROS-sensitive inflammatory signaling by Liu MH1, Lin AH1, Lee HF2, Ko HK3, Lee TS1, Kou YR1.(PubMed)
(1024) [Advance in studies on effect of paeoniflorin on nervous system].[Article in Chinese] by Hu ZY1, Xu L, Yan R, Huang Y, Liu G, Zhou WX, Zhang YX.(PubMed)
(1025) Paeonol increases levels of cortical cytochrome oxidase and vascular actin and improves behavior in a rat model of Alzheimer's disease by Zhou J1, Zhou L, Hou D, Tang J, Sun J, Bondy SC.(PubMed)
(1026) Paeoniflorin attenuates learning impairment of aged rats in operant brightness discrimination task by Ohta H1, Matsumoto K, Shimizu M, Watanabe H.(PubMed)
(1027) [Effects of total paeony glucosides on mRNA expressions of Toll receptors and interleukin-33 in the brain tissue of D-galactose induced aging rats: an experimental research].[Article in Chinese] by Zhang HY1, Liu ZJ, Chen ZW.(PubMed)
(1028) [Advance in studies on effect of paeoniflorin on nervous system].[Article in Chinese] by Hu ZY1, Xu L, Yan R, Huang Y, Liu G, Zhou WX, Zhang YX.(PubMed)
(1028a) Neuroprotective effect of paeoniflorin on cerebral ischemic rat by activating adenosine A1 receptor in a manner different from its classical agonists by Liu DZ1, Xie KQ, Ji XQ, Ye Y, Jiang CL, Zhu XZ.(PubMed)
(1029) Mechanism of 6-hydroxydopamine neurotoxicity by Glinka Y1, Gassen M, Youdim MB.(PubMed)
(1030) Paeoniflorin inhibition of 6-hydroxydopamine-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells via suppressing reactive oxygen species-mediated PKCδ/NF-κB pathway by Dong H1, Li R2, Yu C1, Xu T1, Zhang X1, Dong M3.(PubMed)
(1031) Effects of the root bark of Paeonia suffruticosa on mitochondria-mediated neuroprotection in an MPTP-induced model of Parkinson's disease by Kim HG1, Park G2, Piao Y3, Kang MS4, Pak YK3, Hong SP1, Oh MS5.(PubMed)
(1032) Protective effect of paeoniflorin against glutamate-induced neurotoxicity in PC12 cells via Bcl-2/Bax signal pathway by Sun R1, Wang K, Wu D, Li X, Ou Y.(PubMed)
(1033) Polyphenols and neuroprotection against ischemia and neurodegeneration. by Lin B1.(PubMed)
(1034) Apolipoprotein E and Alzheimer disease: risk, mechanisms, and therapy by Chia-Chen Liu,1 Takahisa Kanekiyo,2 Huaxi Xu,1 and Guojun Bu1(PMC)
(1035) Increased A beta 42(43)-plaque deposition in early-onset familial Alzheimer's disease brains with the deletion of exon 9 and the missense point mutation (H163R) in the PS-1 gene by Ishii K1, Ii K, Hasegawa T, Shoji S, Doi A, Mori H.(PubMed)
(1036) Abeta-42 deposition precedes other changes in PS-1 Alzheimer's disease by Lippa CF, Nee LE, Mori H, St George-Hyslop P.(PubMed)
(1037) Peoniflorin attentuates Abeta((1-42))-mediated neurotoxicity by regulating calcium homeostasis and ameliorating oxidative stress in hippocampus of rats by Zhong SZ1, Ge QH, Li Q, Qu R, Ma SP.(PubMed)
(1038) A review of cognitive impairments in dementia with Lewy bodies relative to Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease with dementia by Metzler-Baddeley C1.(PubMed)
(1039) Paeoniflorin attenuates amyloid-beta peptide-induced neurotoxicity by ameliorating oxidative stress and regulating the NGF-mediated signaling in rats. by Lan Z1, Chen L2, Fu Q1, Ji W1, Wang S1, Liang Z1, Qu R3, Kong L4, Ma S5.(PubMed)
(1040) Paeoniflorin attenuates chronic cerebral hypoperfusion-induced learning dysfunction and brain damage in rats by Liu J1, Jin DZ, Xiao L, Zhu XZ.(PubMed)
(1041) Effects of paeoniflorin on the cerebral infarction, behavioral and cognitive impairments at the chronic stage of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats by Xiao L1, Wang YZ, Liu J, Luo XT, Ye Y, Zhu XZ.(PubMed)
(1042) Paeonol attenuates neurotoxicity and ameliorates cognitive impairment induced by d-galactose in ICR mice by Zhong SZ1, Ge QH, Qu R, Li Q, Ma SP.(PubMed)
(1043) Danggui-Shaoyao-San ameliorates cognition deficits and attenuates oxidative stress-related neuronal apoptosis in d-galactose-induced senescent mice by Lan Z1, Liu J, Chen L, Fu Q, Luo J, Qu R, Kong L, Ma S.(PubMed)
(1044) Ameliorative effects of paeoniflorin, a major constituent of peony root, on adenosine A1 receptor-mediated impairment of passive avoidance performance and long-term potentiation in the hippocampus by Tabata K1, Matsumoto K, Murakami Y, Watanabe H.(PubMed)

Monday, 13 February 2017

The holistic Prevention, Management and Treatment of Dementia : TCM Treatment due to Heart (Yang) Qi deficiency - Herbal Sang shen

Kyle J. Norton (Scholar) 
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.


                                 Dementia

Dementia is defined as neuro degeneration syndrome among elder, affecting memory, thinking, orientation, comprehension, calculation, learning capacity, language, and judgement over 47 millions
of worldwide population, mostly in the West. The evaluation of the syndrome by holistic medicine has been lacking, especially through conventional medicine research and studies.


   TCM Treatment of Dementia Induced by Heart (Yang) Qi deficiency - Herbal Sang shen 

Based on Chinese ancient medical records, causes of dementia are the results of (*)
B.1. Deficiency of Qi, mainly due to
B.2. Heart (Yang) Qi deficiency
Heart Qi deficiency is a condition of the inability of the heart in transportation of nutrients to body organs, including the brain through blood circulation. Prolong period of malnutrition of brain cells may induce abnormal function of brain's cells in information transmitting or death of neurons, causing cognitive impairment(844), including learning and memory deficits(842), changes in brain tissue and behavior patterns(843)(842).
2.4. Sang shen
Sang Shen also known as Mulberry or Morus Fruit, the sweet, sour and cold herb has been used in TCM as antioxidant(968)(969), antiinflammatory(969), anti ageing(991) and neuroprotective(968)(970) agents and to treat vertigo, tinnitus, insomnia, atherosclerosis(971)(973), vascular smooth muscle cells(972), lipid accumulation(974), weak digestion, premature white hair, thirst(967), diabetes(967), diarrhea, etc., as it nourishes Yin, and Blood, promotes generation of Body Fluid, moistens the Intestines, etc. by enhancing the functions of heart, liver and kidney channels(975).

Phytochemicals
1. Resveratrol
2. Anthocyanosides
3. Carotene
4. Thiamine
5. Ribflavin
6. Vtamin C
7. Vannin
8. Linoleic acid
9. Stearic acid
10. Etc.

Herbal sang shen used in the treatment and prevention of dementia(977) in traditional Chinese medicine, may be due to its effectiveness of phytochemicals in exertion of its neuroprotective effects(968)(970) through anti oxidative stress(968)(969), anti inflammatory(969) and anti excitotoxic (involved Alzheimer's disease) mechanisms(978) against cell membrane damage and mitochondrial function induced by oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) and glutamate-induced cell death(977).

1. In aging Alzheimer's disease(ADs)
Decreased the levels of serum aspartate aminotransferase caused by oxidative stress(979), alanine aminotransferase(980), triglyceride(981) and total cholesterol(982) due to ageing have shown to involve in the development of Alzheimer's disease. In ageing animals, mulberry extracts (ME), rich in phenolics and anthocyanins, significantly demonstrated less amyloid beta protein and improved learning and memory ability through its antioxidant enzymes and reduction of oxidative damage(983).
Cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G) fraction extracted from sang shen effectively protected primary cortical neurons in 7 days, against glutamate-induced cell death cause of dementia, including Alzheimer's disease(ADs(978) in rat model(984).

2. In Parkinson's disease
Parkinson's disease (PD), is one of the most common neurodegenerative disorders as results of dopaminergic deafferentation of the basal ganglia)(985) and oxidative stress(986)(987).
According to Kyung Hee University, 70 % ethanol extract of mulberry fruit(ME), in dose-dependent manner, in vitro and in vivo PD models showed to prevent 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced dopaminergic neuronal damage(999), through its antioxidant and anti-apoptotic effects, in regulating reactive oxygen species and NO generation(988).

3. Neuroprotective effects
Cyanidin-3-O-beta-d-glucopyranoside (C3G) found abundantly in the mulberry fruits exerted significantly exhibited its cytoprotective effect on PC12 cells(derived from a pheochromocytoma of the rat adrenal medulla) under oxidative stress induced neuro-degenerative diseases(983)(989). In neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, caused by cerebral ischemia, mulberry leaves (ML) exhibited neuroprotectiveactions in reduced the cytotoxicity in the PC12 cells against oxygen glucose deprivation with enhanced accumulation of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)(990).

4. In memory improvement
In mice model, mulberry fruits extract, significantly increased pre- and post-synapse formation(992), acetylcholine synthesisation(993), neuronal cell differentiation(994), neurite outgrowth(995) and neuronal cell proliferation(996) in the hippocampus, against loss of memory through its antioxidant in protecting or enhanced neuronal functions mediated by neurotrophic factors, such as nerve growth factor (NGF)(991). According to National Chung Hsing University, in memory deterioration in ageing animals, phenolics and anthocyanins, from mulberry fruits, inhibited amyloid beta protein(998) and improved learning and memory ability through induced higher antioxidant enzyme activity and less lipid oxidation in both the brainand liver(997).

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References

(*) Traditional Chinese Medicine for Senile Dementia by Zhihong Lin,1 Jie Gu,1 Jin Xiu,1 Tingyan Mi,1 Jie Dong,1 and Jyoti Kumar Tiwari2(Hindawi)
(842) Folate deficiency in rat pups during weaning causes learning and memory deficits. by Berrocal-Zaragoza MI1, Sequeira JM1, Murphy MM2, Fernandez-Ballart JD2, Abdel Baki SG3, Bergold PJ3, Quadros EV1.(PubMed)
(843) Changes in brain tissue and behavior patterns induced by single short-term fasting in mice. by Hisatomi Y1, Asakura K, Kugino K, Kurokawa M, Asakura T, Nakata K.(PubMed)
(844) Combined low calcium and lack magnesium is a risk factor for motor deficit in mice. by Taniguchi R1, Nakagawasai O, Tan-no K, Yamadera F, Nemoto W, Sato S, Yaoita F, Tadano T.(PubMed)

(968) Mulberry extracts alleviate aβ 25-35-induced injury and change the gene expression profile in PC12 cells. by Song N1, Yang H2, Pang W3, Qie Z3, Lu H4, Tan L3, Li H3, Sun S3, Lian F5, Qin C6, Jiang Y3.(PubMed)
(969) Combined treatment of mulberry leaf and fruit extract ameliorates obesity-related inflammation and oxidative stress in high fat diet-induced obese mice by Lim HH1, Yang SJ, Kim Y, Lee M, Lim Y.(PubMed)
(970) [Primary study on protective effect of mulberry extracts on Abeta25-35-induced PC12 cells injury].[Article in Chinese] by Song N1, Pang W, Yang H, Tan L, Fu J, Li H, Jiang Y.(PubMed)
(971) Mulberry water extracts inhibit rabbit atherosclerosis through stimulation of vascular smooth muscle cell apoptosis via activating p53 and regulating both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways by Chan KC1, Ho HH, Lin MC, Wu CH, Huang CN, Chang WC, Wang CJ.(PubMed)
(972) Impact of polyphenolic components from mulberry on apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells by Chan KC1, Ho HH, Lin MC, Huang CN, Huang HP, Wang CJ.(PubMed)
(973) Effects of Panax notoginseng saponins on proliferation and apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells by Xu L1, Liu JT, Liu N, Lu PP, Pang XM.(PubMed)
(974) Blueberry and mulberry juice prevent obesity development in C57BL/6 mice by Wu T1, Tang Q, Gao Z, Yu Z, Song H, Zheng X, Chen W.(PubMed)
(975) Sang Shen(Complementary and Alternative Healing University)
(976) Mulberry Fruit Extract Protects against Memory Impairment and Hippocampal Damage in Animal Model of Vascular Dementia by Kaewkaen P1, Tong-Un T, Wattanathorn J, Muchimapura S, Kaewrueng W, Wongcharoenwanakit S.(PubMed)
(977) The Neuroprotective Potential of Cyanidin-3-glucoside Fraction Extracted from Mulberry Following Oxygen-glucose Deprivation by Bhuiyan MI1, Kim HB, Kim SY, Cho KO.(PubMed)
(978) Slow excitotoxicity in Alzheimer's disease. by Ong WY1, Tanaka K, Dawe GS, Ittner LM, Farooqui AA.(PubMed)
(979) Serum elevated gamma glutamyltransferase levels may be a marker for oxidative stress in Alzheimer's disease. by Yavuz BB1, Yavuz B, Halil M, Cankurtaran M, Ulger Z, Cankurtaran ES, Aytemir K, Ariogul S.(PubMed)
(980) Increased aspartate aminotransferase activity in cerebrospinal fluid and Alzheimer's disease
(981) Effects of caprylic triglyceride on cognitive performance and cerebral glucose metabolism in mild Alzheimer's disease: a single-case observation by Farah BA1.(PubMed)
(982) Plasma total cholesterol level as a risk factor for Alzheimer disease: the Framingham Study. by Tan ZS1, Seshadri S, Beiser A, Wilson PW, Kiel DP, Tocco M, D'Agostino RB, Wolf PA.(PubMed)
(983) Antioxidant and cognitive promotion effects of anthocyanin-rich mulberry (Morus atropurpurea L.) on senescence-accelerated mice and prevention of Alzheimer's disease. by Shih PH1, Chan YC, Liao JW, Wang MF, Yen GC.(PubMed)(984) The Neuroprotective Potential of Cyanidin-3-glucoside Fraction Extracted from Mulberry Following Oxygen-glucose Deprivation by Bhuiyan MI1, Kim HB, Kim SY, Cho KO.(PubMed)
(985) Biology of Parkinson's disease: pathogenesis and pathophysiology of a multisystem neurodegenerative disorder by Garrett E. Alexander, MD; PhD*(PMC)
(986) The role of oxidative stress in Parkinson's disease by Dias V1, Junn E, Mouradian MM.(PubMed)
(987) Oxidative stress in Parkinson's disease by Jenner P1.(PubMed)
(988) Mulberry fruit protects dopaminergic neurons in toxin-induced Parkinson's disease models by Kim HG1, Ju MS, Shim JS, Kim MC, Lee SH, Huh Y, Kim SY, Oh MS.(PubMed)
(989) Neuroprotective effects of the cyanidin-3-O-beta-d-glucopyranoside isolated from mulberry fruit against cerebral ischemia by Kang TH1, Hur JY, Kim HB, Ryu JH, Kim SY.(PubMed)
(990) Enhancement of neuroprotection of mulberry leaves (Morus alba L.) prepared by the anaerobic treatment against ischemic damage by Kang TH1, Oh HR, Jung SM, Ryu JH, Park MW, Park YK, Kim SY.(PubMed)
(991) Memory-enhancing effect of Mori Fructus via induction of nerve growth factor by Kim HG1, Oh MS.(PubMed)
(992) Loss of Presenilin Function Causes Impairments of Memory and Synaptic Plasticity Followed by Age-Dependent Neurodegeneration, Carlos A Saura1, Se-Young Choi2, Vassilios Beglopoulos1, Seema Malkani1, Dawei Zhang1, 2, B.S.Shankaranarayana Rao3, Sumantra Chattarji3, Raymond J Kelleher III4,Eric R Kandel5, Karen Duff6, Alfredo Kirkwood2, Jie Shen, 1, (Science direct)
(993) Lost memories might be able to be restored, new UCLA study indicates(UCLA Newsroom)
(994) Neural stem cells improve memory in an inducible mouse model of neuronal loss. by Yamasaki TR1, Blurton-Jones M, Morrissette DA, Kitazawa M, Oddo S, LaFerla FM.(PubMed)
(995) Abeta(25-35)-induced memory impairment, axonal atrophy, and synaptic loss are ameliorated by M1, A metabolite of protopanaxadiol-type saponins by Tohda C1, Matsumoto N, Zou K, Meselhy MR, Komatsu K.(PubMed)
(996) The effects of bilateral vestibular loss on hippocampal volume, neuronal number, and cell proliferation in rats by Zheng Y1, Balabhadrapatruni S, Baek JH, Chung P, Gliddon C, Zhang M, Darlington CL, Napper R, Strupp M, Brandt T, Smith PF.(PubMed)
(907) Antioxidant and cognitive promotion effects of anthocyanin-rich mulberry (Morus atropurpurea L.) on senescence-accelerated mice and prevention of Alzheimer's disease by Shih PH1, Chan YC, Liao JW, Wang MF, Yen GC.(PubMed)
(998) An intracellular threonine of amyloid-β precursor protein mediates synaptic plasticity deficits and memory loss. by Lombino F1, Biundo F, Tamayev R, Arancio O, D'Adamio L.(PubMed)

Sunday, 12 February 2017

The holistic Prevention, Management and Treatment of Dementia : TCM Treatment due to Heart (Yang) Qi deficiency - Herbal Xi Yang Shen

Kyle J. Norton (Scholar) 
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.


                                 Dementia

Dementia is defined as neuro degeneration syndrome among elder, affecting memory, thinking, orientation, comprehension, calculation, learning capacity, language, and judgement over 47 millions
of worldwide population, mostly in the West. The evaluation of the syndrome by holistic medicine has been lacking, especially through conventional medicine research and studies.


   TCM Treatment of Dementia Induced byHeart (Yang) Qi deficiency - Herbal Xi Yang Shen

Based on Chinese ancient medical records, causes of dementia are the results of (*)
B.1. Deficiency of Qi, mainly due to
B.2. Heart (Yang) Qi deficiency
Heart Qi deficiency is a condition of the inability of the heart in transportation of nutrients to body organs, including the brain through blood circulation. Prolong period of malnutrition of brain cells may induce abnormal function of brain's cells in information transmitting or death of neurons, causing cognitive impairment(844), including learning and memory deficits(842), changes in brain tissue and behavior patterns(843)(842)..

3. Xi yang shen(946),
Yin in nature, the sweet, slightly bitter, cool herb has been used in TCM to treat fatigue(947)(948), diabetes(949), cardiovascular diseases(950)(951) and atopic diseases(952), promote saliva, quench thirst(949)(950), due to yang deficiency of lungs, by enhancing the lung and spleen qi, through increasing the digestive system in absorbing vital energy and reducing the heat causes of qi stagnation through Heart, Lung, Kidney channels.

Phytochemicals
1. Resin
2. Pinene
3. α Phellandrene
4. β Phellandrene
5. α-amyrone,
6. α-amyrinone
7. α-amyrin
8. β-amyrin
8. Viridiflorol
9. Insensole
10. Insensole oxide
11. Ginseng Saponins: ginsenoside -R0, -Rb1, -Rb2, -Rb3, -Rc, -Rd, -Re, -Rf, -Rg1, -Rg2, -Rg3, -Rh1, -RA0, quinquenoside R1, gypenoside X1, F3, F11.
12. Etc.

Herbal xi yang shen used in the treatment and prevention of dementia(953) in traditional Chinese medicine, may be due to its effectiveness of phytochemicals in ameliorated amyloid pathology(953) causes of neuro cells apoptosis(954) and related cognitive deficits(955).

3.1. In Alzheimer's disease
In Alzheimer's disease cell model, induced by Abeta25-35, water extracts ofAmerican Ginseng (WEAG), exerted neuroprotective effects of SH-SY5, a human derived cell line against cells apoptosi(954). Pseudoginsenoside-F11 (PF11), a main component found in American ginseng, in Alzheimer's disease (AD) mice model, induced by scopolamine, morphine and methamphetamine, significantly mitigated learning and memory impairment in 15 days, through inhibited the expressions of β-amyloid precursor protein (APP) and Aβ1-40 in the cortex and hippocampus, restored the activities of antioxidants in decreased the production of malondialdehyde (MDA), a indicators of lipid peroxidation (953).

3.2. In Huntington’s disease and Parkinson’s disease
In neurodegeneration-like Huntington's disease and Parkinson's disease rat model, induced by 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP). preparation of American ginseng leaves and stems significantly reduced brain degeneration through its active phytochemicals, ginsenosides, Rb1, Rb3 and Rd(958), according to Baylor College of Medicine and Austin State University(957). Ginsengsaponins, an active ingredients found in ginseng species, including American ginseng also exerted beneficial effects on aging, central nervous system (CNS) disorders, and neurodegenerative diseases through mediated protective mechanisms, including attenuated free radicals(959)(960).

3.3. In Neuroprotective effects
Pseudoginsenoside-F11 (PF11), a phytochemical of Panax quinquefolism (American ginseng) showed to exhibit its neuroprotective effect against impraired locomotor(962) on methamphetamine (MA)-induced behavioral and neurochemical toxicities in mice(964) and in Parkinson's disease (PD) of rat model, by evoked neuronal excitability and mediated the increased release of glutamate(962), motor balance, coordination, and apomorphine-induced rotation, through inhibiting free radical formation and stimulating endogenous antioxidant release(961). According to the State Key Laboratory of Chinese Medicine and Molecular Pharmacology, water extracts of American Ginseng(WEAG) also exerted its neuroprotective effect on SH-SY5Y cells apoptosis induced by Abeta25-35, in Alzheimer's Disease cellular model(963).

3.4. In Cognitive impairment
Amyloid β (Aβ) accumulation, elevated oxidative stress, and apoptosis of the neurons have shown to induce the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD), Pseudoginsenoside-F11 (PF11) found abundantly in American ginseng, exhibited recognitive improvement effect in mouse model, through its antioxidant status in inhibition of amyloidogenesis and oxidative stress and enhancement of neuronal functions(965) as well as ameliorated cognitiveimpairment, neuroinflammation, and biochemical alterations caused by accumulation of intercellular messenger, nitric oxide (NO)(966).









Ovarian Cysts And PCOS Elimination
Holistic System In Existence That Will Show You How To
Permanently Eliminate All Types of Ovarian Cysts Within 2 Months

Pregnancy Miracle
Reverse Infertility And Get Pregnant Naturally
Using Holistic Ancient Chinese Medicine


References
(*) Traditional Chinese Medicine for Senile Dementia by Zhihong Lin,1 Jie Gu,1 Jin Xiu,1 Tingyan Mi,1 Jie Dong,1 and Jyoti Kumar Tiwari2(Hindawi)
(946) American Ginseng, xi yang shen(Complementary and Alternative Healing University)
(947) Anti-fatigue effects of proteins isolated from Panax quinquefolium. by Qi B1, Liu L1, Zhang H1, Zhou GX1, Wang S1, Duan XZ1, Bai XY1, Wang SM1, Zhao DQ2.(PubMed)
(948) American ginseng does not improve fatigue in multiple sclerosis: a single center randomized double-blind placebo-controlled crossover pilot study. by Kim E1, Cameron M, Lovera J, Schaben L, Bourdette D, Whitham R.(PubMed)
(949) American Ginseng Extract (Panax quinquefolius L.) Is Safe in Long-Term Use in Type 2 Diabetic Patients. by Mucalo I1, Jovanovski E2, Vuksan V3, Božikov V4, Romić Z5, Rahelić D4.(PubMed)
(950) Therapeutic potential of ginseng in the management of cardiovascular disorders by Karmazyn M1, Moey M, Gan XT.(PubMed)
(951)North American ginseng exerts a neutral effect on blood pressure in individuals with hypertension by Stavro PM1, Woo M, Heim TF, Leiter LA, Vuksan V.(PubMed)
(952) Compound CVT-E002 attenuates allergen-induced airway inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness, in vivo by Ebeling C1, Wu Y, Skappak C, Gordon JR, Ilarraza R, Adamko DJ.(PubMed)
(953) Anti-amnesic effect of pseudoginsenoside-F11 in two mouse models of Alzheimer's disease by Wang CM1, Liu MY, Wang F, Wei MJ, Wang S, Wu CF, Yang JY.(PubMed)
(954) [Neuroprotective effects of water extracts of American Ginseng on SH-SY5Y cells apoptosis induced by Abeta25-35].[Article in Chinese] by Hu SQ1, Yu HM, Liu TS, Yang DJ, Chen XZ, He CJ.(PubMed)
(955) HT1001, a proprietary North American ginseng extract, improves working memory in schizophrenia: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study by Chen EY1, Hui CL.(PubMed)
(956) Modulation of nitrergic signalling pathway by American ginseng attenuates chronic unpredictable stress-induced cognitive impairment, neuroinflammation, and biochemical alterations by Rinwa P1, Kumar A.(PubMed)
(957) Ginseng compounds may fight Huntington’s disease, Parkinson’s disease(Northest Parkinson foundation)
(958) Ginseng Substances Fight Brain Disease In Rats(Bio space)
(959) Plants and phytochemicals for Huntington's disease by Sunayna Choudhary1, Puneet Kumar2, Jai Malik1(Phamarcognosy Review)
(960) Use of ginseng in medicine with emphasis on neurodegenerative disorders by Radad K1, Gille G, Liu L, Rausch WD.(PubMed)
(961) Neuroprotective effect of pseudoginsenoside-f11 on a rat model of Parkinson's disease induced by 6-hydroxydopamine by Wang JY1, Yang JY1, Wang F1, Fu SY1, Hou Y1, Jiang B1, Ma J1, Song C1, Wu CF1.(PubMed)
(962) Ginseng derivative ocotillol enhances neuronal activity through increased glutamate release: a possible mechanism underlying increased spontaneous locomotor activity of mice by Wang ZJ1, Sun L, Peng W, Ma S, Zhu C, Fu F, Heinbockel T.(PubMed)
(963) [Neuroprotective effects of water extracts of American Ginseng on SH-SY5Y cells apoptosis induced by Abeta25-35].[Article in Chinese] by Hu SQ1, Yu HM, Liu TS, Yang DJ, Chen XZ, He CJ.(PubMed)
(964) Protective effects of pseudoginsenoside-F11 on methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity in mice. by Wu CF1, Liu YL, Song M, Liu W, Wang JH, Li X, Yang JY.(PubMed)
(965) Anti-amnesic effect of pseudoginsenoside-F11 in two mouse models of Alzheimer's disease. by Wang CM1, Liu MY, Wang F, Wei MJ, Wang S, Wu CF, Yang JY.(PubMed)
(966) Modulation of nitrergic signalling pathway by American ginseng attenuates chronic unpredictable stress-induced cognitive impairment, neuroinflammation, and biochemical alterations by Rinwa P1, Kumar A.(PubMed)